Red List habitat classification > RLB - Coastal habitats > RLB1.7d Mediterranean coniferous coastal dune woodland

Mediterranean coniferous coastal dune woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLB1.7d
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)


Dune woods develop naturally where coastal sands become sufficiently stabilised and remote from the influence of saline ground water or spray to sustain a permanent cover of trees and they bear a strong resemblance to the zonal woodland type(s) of the particular regional climate. Within the Mediterranean zone, on the coasts of Cyprus, Albania, Italy, Spain and the Atlantic coast of Portugal, various pine dominate the vegetation landscape, similar to G3.7 Mediterranean lowland to sub-montane Pinus woodland. The commonest trees in the western Mediterranean are Pinus pinea, Pinus pinaster and Pinus halepensis and in the east Pinus brutia. The first three are also widely planted on stable coastal sands in the Mediterranean and long-established plantations with natural undergrowth (like in the equivalent Annex 1 habitat type 2270 Wooded dunes with Pinus pinea and/or Pinus pinaster) are included in this habitat type. Associated woody species include Phillyrea angustifolia, Rhamnus oleoides, Pistacia lentiscus, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Tamarix gallica and Tamarix africana, with Juniperus macrocarpa, Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus oxycedrus in Spain and Portugal. Where such shrubs exceed the cover of pines, the vegetation is included in B1.6b Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal dune scrub.

Indicators of quality:

  • Absence of planted native or introduced pines or other forestry trees such as Eucalyptus
  • Presence of uneven aged pine canopy with subordinate shrub layer
  • Presence of typical associated flora without weeds
  • Lack of disturbance from coastal tourism

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

Data are available from 5 countries (only in the EU28). As the habitat experienced a slight decrease and it is relatively stable both in quantity and quality, is assessed as Least Concern under Criteria A1, A2a, A3, B1, B2 and C/D1 for EU 28 and EU 28+. The habitat is Data Deficient under the other Criteria.
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
    • Discharges
  • Human intrusions and disturbances
    • Outdoor sports and leisure activities, recreational activities
  • Natural System modifications
    • Fire and fire suppression

Habitat restoration potential

This habitat could be severely damaged by fire. After fire or clearing, the habitat needs human intervention for recovering. In particular, planting Pinus spp. is suggested.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Legal protection of habitats and species could be suggested. In particular, a general legislation to prevent construction of new infrastructures and land clearing at expense of this habitat should be shared by all the EU countries. Moreover, restoring degraded coastal pines areas are also important. If pines have been planted, programmed cutting schedules are needed to maintain the quality of the habitat. Preventing from trampling could be also mentioned.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring coastal areas
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species
  • Measures related to hunting, taking and fishing and species management
    • Specific single species or species group management measures


For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Croatia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Cyprus Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown
France mainland Present 27 Unknown Decreasing
Corsica Present 27 Unknown Decreasing
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 8.7 Decreasing Unknown
Crete Present 8.7 Decreasing Unknown
East Aegean Present 8.7 Decreasing Unknown
Italy mainland Present 222 Decreasing Stable
Sardinia Present 222 Decreasing Stable
Sicily Present 222 Decreasing Stable
Portugal mainland Present 337 Decreasing Decreasing
Portugal Azores Present 337 Decreasing Decreasing
Madeira Present 337 Decreasing Decreasing
Savage Islands Present 337 Decreasing Decreasing
Spain mainland Present 166 Unknown Decreasing
Balearic Islands Present 166 Unknown Decreasing
Canary Islands Present 166 Unknown Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Albania Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Montenegro Present Unknown Unknown Unknown

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 1974500 373 762
EU28+ 373 762
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

Not available

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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