Red List habitat classification > RLB - Coastal habitats > RLB1.8b Mediterranean and Black Sea moist and wet dune slack

Mediterranean and Black Sea moist and wet dune slack

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLB1.8b
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat type develops in small permanent or temporary fresh water bodies in the depressions between dune ridges of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. These wetlands occur at the lower parts of white and grey dune systems, having a patchy distribution. Coastal dune slacks are more common along the Atlantic coasts as in the warmer Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts .Plant communities in wet dune slacks depend on the groundwater level. This varies spatially and temporally and dune slacks may occur in a range from permanent water bodies to waterlogged or moist sandy depressions.

The communities consist of typical hydro- or hygrophytic species. The permanent or semi-permanent (persisting until summer) water bodies, like small ponds, lakes and pools, are inhabited by aquatic vegetation, with species of the classes Potametea or Charetea. Often a zone of high grasses (reed, sedges, rushes, reed mace) develops at their periphery. Nutrient content also varies, but mostly the water is eutrophic to mesotrophic, sometimes even dystrophic. Temporary water bodies are very diverse in water depth and duration of water retention. Stands of high helophytes, like Phragmites australis, Typha spp., Juncus spp., Carex spp. Cladium mariscus, Holoschoenus spp. and Scirpus spp. develop mostly on the over-wet sands, which desiccate during the summer. In such conditions, a slight salinization is possible, and halophytic species or small therophytes of the class Isoeto-Nanojuncetea may inhabit the bare bottoms. Such dune slacks are species rich and highly specialised habitats, and they are threatened by the lowering of water table.

Indicators of quality:

The habitat is very sensitive to every human disturbance, resulting from tourism development, physical damage, eutrophication, over growth through lack of grazing, climate change and especially changes in the water regime. The most important indicators of good quality are:

  • natural water regime
  • balance between the hygrophytic and hydrophytic vegetation
  • diversity of plant communities depending on water dynamic
  • occurrence of a range of different dune slacks within dune systems at a landscape level

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat type is assessed as Least Concern (LC) under all criteria for which data were available. Trends in qaulity and quantity were relatively small, and the habitat is widespread over the coastal regions of the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
    • Continuous urbanisation
    • Discontinuous urbanisation
  • Human intrusions and disturbances
    • Outdoor sports and leisure activities, recreational activities
  • Pollution
    • Pollution to surface waters (limnic, terrestrial, marine & brackish)
    • Pollution to groundwater (point sources and diffuse sources)
  • Invasive, other problematic species and genes
    • Invasive non-native species
  • Natural System modifications
    • Human induced changes in hydraulic conditions
    • Modification of hydrographic functioning, general

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat has some capacity to recover naturally but this dependents on geomorphological processes which are slow. It could be restored in some areas especially by improving hydraulic conditions and the removal of invasive species.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Strict protection of preserved dune systems with dune slacks is considered as the most appropriate conservation measure. Restoration of hydraulic conditions of dune wetlands as well as removal of non-typical and invasive species are required in some coastal area.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring/Improving water quality
    • Restoring/Improving the hydrological regime
    • Restoring coastal areas
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bulgaria Present 0.2 Decreasing Decreasing
Croatia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
France mainland Present 14 Stable Decreasing
Corsica Present 14 Stable Decreasing
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 3.2 Stable Stable
Crete Present 3.2 Stable Stable
Italy mainland Present 156 Stable Decreasing
Sardinia Present 156 Stable Decreasing
Sicily Present 156 Stable Decreasing
Portugal mainland Present 10 Decreasing Stable
Romania Present 1 Stable Stable
Spain mainland Present 1.5 Decreasing Decreasing
Balearic Islands Present 1.5 Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Albania Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Montenegro Present Unknown Unknown Unknown

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 2824500 333 185
EU28+ 333 185
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Flowering Plants Blackstonia perfoliata
Flowering Plants Bolboschoenus maritimus
Flowering Plants Carex distans
Flowering Plants Centaurium pulchellum
Flowering Plants Ceratophyllum demersum
Flowering Plants Cladium mariscus
Flowering Plants Cyperus flavescens
Flowering Plants Holoschoenus romanus
Flowering Plants Juncus acutus
Flowering Plants Juncus littoralis
Flowering Plants Lemna minor
Flowering Plants Myriophyllum spicatum
Flowering Plants Orchis laxiflora
Flowering Plants Phragmites australis
Flowering Plants Samolus valerandi
Flowering Plants Schoenus nigricans
Flowering Plants Scirpoides holoschoenus
Flowering Plants Typha angustifolia
Flowering Plants Typha latifolia
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Blackstonia perfoliata Flowering Plants
Bolboschoenus maritimus Flowering Plants
Carex distans Flowering Plants
Centaurium pulchellum Flowering Plants
Ceratophyllum demersum Flowering Plants
Cladium mariscus Flowering Plants
Cyperus flavescens Flowering Plants
Holoschoenus romanus Flowering Plants
Juncus acutus Flowering Plants
Juncus littoralis Flowering Plants
Lemna minor Flowering Plants
Myriophyllum spicatum Flowering Plants
Orchis laxiflora Flowering Plants
Phragmites australis Flowering Plants
Samolus valerandi Flowering Plants
Schoenus nigricans Flowering Plants
Scirpoides holoschoenus Flowering Plants
Typha angustifolia Flowering Plants
Typha latifolia Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.8 Moist and wet dune slacks narrower
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