Red List habitat classification > RLC - Freshwater habitats > RLC2.2b Permanent non-tidal, fast, turbulent watercourse of plains and montane regions with Ranunculus spp.

Permanent non-tidal, fast, turbulent watercourse of plains and montane regions with Ranunculus spp.

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLC2.2b
Threat status
Europe Vulnerable
EU Vulnerable
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

The habitat includes river stretches with a stony, gravelly or shingly river bed with an average flow velocity over 0.2 m/sec. Main physical differences between this habitat type and C2.3 (Permanent non-tidal, smooth-flowing watercourses) are the higher flow velocity and the bigger grain size of the sediments. These two habitats, as well as the  habitat C2.2a (Permanent non-tidal, fast, turbulent watercourses of montane to alpine regions with moss communities) may be related as segments of the same stream or river. These stretches of rivers are usually natural and unaltered. The natural hydrological regime is variable, alternating periods of low water level (but never completely dry) and floods. This regime promotes a cyclic development of the vegetation, the coexistence of various microhabitats, the self-purification due to the high oxygen level. This habitat is characterized by patches of stone beds devoid of any plant species, patches of aquatic mosses attached to stones and patches of submerged rooting macrophytes. Characteristic submerged macrophytes are Potamogeton alpinus, P. polygonifolius, Ranunculus fluitans, and Callitriche hamulata. Also Potamogeton pectinatus occurs in this habitat with long and narrow leaves floating in the water stream, but might be considered as a species that characterizes less optimal circumstances. Once the water become deepand slowly flowing, Nuphar lutea and other species of the genus Potamogeton become more characteristic. Emergent amphibian plants such as Berula erectaApium nodiflorum, Hippuris vulgaris, Butomus umbellatus, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Sagittaria sagittifolia and Sparganium emersum can also develop in more shallow and illuminated parts of this habitat. Due to the strong current these emergent plants usually develop in this habitat their submerged growth forms with leaves adapted to the water movement. Usually, vegetation cover of the habitat does not exceed 30% of the total area of a river stretch. The vegetation can include also species with a wide abiotic range such as Groenlandia densa, Zannichellia palustris, Myriophyllum spicatum, Nuphar lutea. Species variation is dependent on flow velocity, water depth, sediment type, shading and nutrient richness. Surface water is speedily flowing and rich in oxygen. These are important favorable circumstances for benthonic macroinvertebrates and fish communities.

Indicators of good quality:

  • Flow velocity exceeds 0.2 m/sec
  • Riverbed is mainly stony, pebbly or gravelly, with few finer sediments (sand)
  • No accumulation of fine (silt and clay) and organic sediments
  • Hydrological regime is natural as well as morphology is unaltered
  • No or limited occurrence of exotic species
  • Limited development of emergent species
  • No or limited formation of floating mats of organic residuals.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat is Vulnerable (VU) because of a recent decrease in quantity of 44%. Besides, a substantial reduction in quality occurred, with values at the boundary between Near Threatened and Vulnerable (63% of the extent, 49% severity).
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable A1
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable A1

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest and Plantation management & use
  • Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
    • Mining and quarrying
    • Sand and gravel extraction
  • Pollution
    • Pollution to surface waters (limnic, terrestrial, marine & brackish)
    • Pollution to groundwater (point sources and diffuse sources)
  • Invasive, other problematic species and genes
    • Invasive non-native species
  • Natural System modifications
    • Human induced changes in hydraulic conditions
    • Removal of sediments (mud...)
    • Modification of hydrographic functioning, general
    • Modifying structures of inland water courses
    • Reservoirs
    • Small hydropower projects, weirs

Habitat restoration potential

When severly damaged, the specific resources and actions required to recover the habitat should be based on restoring of both the hydrological regime and water quality. If the substrate composition has been altered, it should be reconstructed.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

For conservation and management of this habitat type the natural hydrological regime must be maintained including flow velocity, riverbed composition of coarser substrates without accumulation of finer and organic sediments. Water quality must be preserved by controlling and limiting water pollution. Fishing and forest plantation on river banks must be managed. The crops should be maintained at a distance from the river banks in order to maintain a filter vegetation belt against pollutants. No or limited occurrence of exotic species should be maintained.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to agriculture and open habitats
    • Other agriculture-related measures
    • Adapting crop production
  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
    • Adapt forest management
  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring/Improving water quality
    • Restoring/Improving the hydrological regime
    • Managing water abstraction
  • Measures related to hunting, taking and fishing and species management
    • Regulation/Management of fishery in limnic systems
  • Measures related to urban areas, industry, energy and transport
    • Urban and industrial waste management

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Austria Present unknown Decreasing Decreasing
Belgium Present 75 Decreasing Stable
Bulgaria Present 10 Decreasing Decreasing
Croatia Present 10 Decreasing Decreasing
Czech Republic Present 5 Decreasing Decreasing
Denmark Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Estonia Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Aland Islands Uncertain 500 Decreasing Decreasing
France mainland Present unknown Decreasing Stable
Corsica Uncertain unknown Decreasing Stable
Germany Present 325 Decreasing Decreasing
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 0,23 Unknown Unknown
Crete Uncertain 0,23 Unknown Unknown
Hungary Present 1 Decreasing Decreasing
Italy mainland Present 110 Decreasing Decreasing
Sardinia Uncertain 110 Decreasing Decreasing
Sicily Uncertain 110 Decreasing Decreasing
Latvia Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Lithuania Present unknown Decreasing Decreasing
Netherlands Present 0.5 Decreasing Decreasing
Poland Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Portugal mainland Present 37 Unknown Stable
Slovenia Present 8.68 Decreasing Decreasing
Slovakia Present 4 Decreasing Decreasing
Cyprus Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Finland mainland Present 500 Decreasing Decreasing
East Aegean Uncertain 0,23 Unknown Unknown
Ireland Present 235 Decreasing Decreasing
Luxembourg Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Romania Present 0,5 Decreasing Decreasing
Spain mainland Present 30 Decreasing Decreasing
United Kingdom Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Northern Island Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Portugal Azores Uncertain 37 Unknown Stable
Sweden Present unknown Unknown Unknown
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Switzerland Present unknown Decreasing Unknown
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 20 Decreasing Decreasing
Albania Present unknown Unknown Unknown
Andorra Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Iceland Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Isle of Man Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Montenegro Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Norway Mainland Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Serbia Present unknown Unknown Unknown
Kosovo Present unknown Unknown Unknown
Liechtestein Uncertain unknown Unknown Unknown
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Present unknown Unknown Unknown

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 8320300 3202 842
EU28+ 3244 862
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Algae Bangia atropurpurea
Algae Hildenbrandia rivularis
Amphibians Salamandrina terdigitata
Birds Cinclus cinclus
Fishes Aspius aspius
Fishes Coregonus lavaretus
Fishes Cottus gobio
Fishes Esox lucius
Fishes Lampetra fluviatilis
Fishes Perca fluviatilis
Fishes Phoxinus phoxinus
Fishes Salmo trutta
Fishes Thymallus thymallus
Flowering Plants Apium nodiflorum
Flowering Plants Berula erecta
Flowering Plants Butomus umbellatus
Flowering Plants Callitriche cophocarpa
Flowering Plants Callitriche hamulata
Flowering Plants Glyceria fluitans
Flowering Plants Groenlandia densa
Flowering Plants Hippuris vulgaris
Flowering Plants Myriophyllum alterniflorum
Flowering Plants Myriophyllum spicatum
Flowering Plants Nuphar lutea
Flowering Plants Potamogeton alpinus
Flowering Plants Potamogeton pectinatus
Flowering Plants Ranunculus aquatilis
Flowering Plants Ranunculus fluitans
Flowering Plants Rorippa amphibia
Flowering Plants Sagittaria sagittifolia
Flowering Plants Schoenoplectus lacustris
Flowering Plants Sparganium angustifolium
Flowering Plants Sparganium emersum
Flowering Plants Veronica beccabunga
Flowering Plants Zannichellia palustris
Invertebrates Ancylus fluviatilis
Invertebrates Astacus astacus
Invertebrates Austropotamobius pallipes
Invertebrates Margaritifera margaritifera
Invertebrates Potamon fluviatile
Invertebrates Theodoxus fluviatilis
Invertebrates Unio crassus
Mammals Castor fiber
Mammals Lutra lutra
Mammals Mustela lutreola
Mosses & Liverworts Fontinalis antipyretica
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum denticulatum
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Bangia atropurpurea Algae
Hildenbrandia rivularis Algae
Salamandrina terdigitata Spectacled salamander Amphibians
Cinclus cinclus Dipper Birds
Aspius aspius Aral asp Fishes
Coregonus lavaretus Common whitefish Fishes
Cottus gobio Freshwater sculpin Fishes
Esox lucius Northern pike Fishes
Lampetra fluviatilis Lampern Fishes
Perca fluviatilis European perch Fishes
Phoxinus phoxinus Common minnow Fishes
Salmo trutta Fishes
Thymallus thymallus European grayling Fishes
Apium nodiflorum Flowering Plants
Berula erecta Flowering Plants
Butomus umbellatus Flowering Plants
Callitriche cophocarpa Flowering Plants
Callitriche hamulata Flowering Plants
Glyceria fluitans Flowering Plants
Groenlandia densa Flowering Plants
Hippuris vulgaris Flowering Plants
Myriophyllum alterniflorum Flowering Plants
Myriophyllum spicatum Flowering Plants
Nuphar lutea Flowering Plants
Potamogeton alpinus Flowering Plants
Potamogeton pectinatus Flowering Plants
Ranunculus aquatilis Flowering Plants
Ranunculus fluitans Flowering Plants
Rorippa amphibia Flowering Plants
Sagittaria sagittifolia Flowering Plants
Schoenoplectus lacustris Flowering Plants
Sparganium angustifolium Flowering Plants
Sparganium emersum Flowering Plants
Veronica beccabunga Flowering Plants
Zannichellia palustris Flowering Plants
Ancylus fluviatilis Invertebrates
Astacus astacus Invertebrates
Austropotamobius pallipes Atlantic stream crayfish Invertebrates
Margaritifera margaritifera Freshwater Pearl Mussel Invertebrates
Potamon fluviatile Invertebrates
Theodoxus fluviatilis Invertebrates
Unio crassus Invertebrates
Castor fiber European beaver Mammals
Lutra lutra Eurasian otter Mammals
Mustela lutreola European mink Mammals
Fontinalis antipyretica Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum denticulatum Mosses & Liverworts

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 C2.2 Permanent non-tidal, fast, turbulent watercourses narrower
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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