Red List habitat classification > RLD - Mires and bogs > RLD3.2 Aapa mire

Aapa mire

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLD3.2
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat consists of minerotrophic main mire surfaces of the central parts of Aapa mire complexes in boreal Fennoscandia. Aapa mires include both topogenous and soligenous types with varying degrees of slope. The peat layer is usually relatively thin (< 2 m) and mainly composed of Carex peat and to lesser extent by remains of Sphagnum and other mosses. The peat is highly water saturated and water table is located very close to peat surface or above it leaving little space for aerobic rhizosphere. Peat and pore water are usually moderately to slightly acidic (with a pHof  4.5 to 5.5). Typically there is a regular pattern of alteration of variably wide wet flarks (wet hollows) or pools and narrow hummock strings that relate to topography, hydrology, peat formation and ice dynamics. Hummock string patterning is oriented perpendicular to slope and water flow. The strings act as dams to store water in the flarks. The string-flark pattern is dense on steep slopes, while nearly non-patterned aapa mires occur in flat terrains. Trees (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens) are absent or sparsely found on hummock strings and are more abundant only near mire margins. Sphagnum and Amblysegiaceae mosses dominate the ground layer of vegetation, while hepatics growing on muddy peat and open water surfaces are common in the flarks. Aapa mires include subtypes ranging widely from nearly ombrotrophic poor fen vegetation to rich fen vegetation. However, aapa mires with true rich fen vegetation are assessed as part of D4.1c Calcareous quaking mires.

Wet flarks of aapa mires are characterized by abundance of sedges such as Carex limosa, Carex rostrata, Carex chordorrhiza, Eriophorum angustifolium and herbs such as Equisetum fluviatile, Menyanthes trifoliata and Potentilla palustris. Among typical carnivorous plants, Drosera longifolia and Utricularia intermedia are common in aapa mire flarks. Characteristic mosses include Warnstorfia fluitans, Warnstorfia exannulata and Warnstorfia procera, while quaking carpets of Sphagnum majus, Sphagnum papillosum and Sphagnum pulchrum are also common especially in southern range of aapa mires. The hummock strings are typically dominated by Sphagnum and sedges.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat type is assessed as Least Concern (LC) in view of its fairly wide distribution and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for a threatened category. However, there is uncertainty on the available information and once more quantitative data is available the assessment may change. Aapa mires are particularly sensitive to hydrological disturbances and it is possible that an ongoing decline in quality due to climate change and catchment disturbances is not recognized.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Agriculture activities not referred to above
  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forestry activities not referred to above
  • Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
    • Mining and quarrying
    • Peat extraction
    • Mechanical removal of peat
  • Natural System modifications
    • Human induced changes in hydraulic conditions
    • Modification of hydrographic functioning, general
    • Reservoirs
    • Water abstractions from groundwater
    • Groundwater abstractions for  public water supply
    • Other human induced changes in hydraulic conditions
  • Natural biotic and abiotic processes (without catastrophes)
    • Biocenotic evolution, succession
    • Species composition change (succession)
    • Acidification (natural)
  • Climate change
    • Changes in abiotic conditions
    • Droughts and less precipitations
    • pH-changes

Habitat restoration potential

Severe damage to aapa mires due to peat extraction can be irreversible. When the hydrology of Severely damaged aapa mires has been strongly altered, in terms of strongly altered hydrology the habitat can be restoredated and it has have the capacity to redevelop characteristic features within few decades. Active intervention by implementing hydrological restoration measures of hydrological restoration (such as blocking of ditches and, damming) is needed. Ditches can also be filled with moss biomass and detritus naturally, but in such cases the recovery of characteristic features is slow, because this habitat type is dependent on very high water level and threshold of runoff.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Stable
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Aapa mires are well represented in protectedconservation areas in northern Finland and Sweden. Restoration of drained aapa mires has been conducted in many Finnish conservation areas. Destructive use mainly for peat extraction leading to destruction of the habitat is being increasingly restricted to directed to disturbed sites only. However, many valuable sites are still not protected and would require conservation investments, for conservation especially in their southern distribution range of aapa mires. Restoration of the hydrological conditionsnections of aapa mire habitats to their groundwater supplying catchment areas would be neededare required in many cases to prevent further decline of the quality of the habitat.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring/Improving water quality
    • Restoring/Improving the hydrological regime
    • Managing water abstraction
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Manage landscape features

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Finland mainland Present 1800 Decreasing Decreasing
Sweden Present 4600 Decreasing Decreasing
United Kingdom Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Norway Mainland Present 5000 Decreasing Decreasing

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 858400 4211
EU28+ 4331
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Birds Anser fabalis
Birds Anthus pratensis
Birds Asio flammeus
Birds Circus cyaneus
Birds Cygnus cygnus
Birds Falco columbarius
Birds Falco subbuteo
Birds Gallinago gallinago
Birds Grus grus
Birds Lagopus lagopus
Birds Lanius excubitor
Birds Limicola falcinellus
Birds Lymnocryptes minimus
Birds Motacilla flava
Birds Numenius arquata
Birds Numenius phaeopus
Birds Phalaropus lobatus
Birds Philomachus pugnax
Birds Pluvialis apricaria
Birds Tringa erythropus
Birds Tringa glareola
Birds Tringa nebularia
Conifers Pinus sylvestris
Ferns Equisetum fluviatile
Ferns Huperzia selago
Ferns Selaginella selaginoides
Flowering Plants Agrostis canina
Flowering Plants Andromeda polifolia
Flowering Plants Betula nana
Flowering Plants Betula pubescens
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis stricta
Flowering Plants Carex aquatilis
Flowering Plants Carex buxbaumii
Flowering Plants Carex chordorrhiza
Flowering Plants Carex diandra
Flowering Plants Carex dioica
Flowering Plants Carex heleonastes
Flowering Plants Carex lasiocarpa
Flowering Plants Carex limosa
Flowering Plants Carex livida
Flowering Plants Carex nigra
Flowering Plants Carex rostrata
Flowering Plants Carex rotundata
Flowering Plants Chamaedaphne calyculata
Flowering Plants Dactylorhiza maculata
Flowering Plants Drosera longifolia
Flowering Plants Drosera rotundifolia
Flowering Plants Epilobium palustre
Flowering Plants Eriophorum angustifolium
Flowering Plants Eriophorum gracile
Flowering Plants Eriophorum russeolum
Flowering Plants Eriophorum vaginatum
Flowering Plants Juncus stygius
Flowering Plants Menyanthes trifoliata
Flowering Plants Molinia caerulea
Flowering Plants Parnassia palustris
Flowering Plants Pedicularis palustris
Flowering Plants Pinguicula villosa
Flowering Plants Potentilla palustris
Flowering Plants Rubus chamaemorus
Flowering Plants Salix lapponum
Flowering Plants Salix myrtilloides
Flowering Plants Scheuchzeria palustris
Flowering Plants Solidago virgaurea
Flowering Plants Stellaria palustris
Flowering Plants Tofieldia pusilla
Flowering Plants Trichophorum alpinum
Flowering Plants Trichophorum cespitosum
Flowering Plants Utricularia intermedia
Flowering Plants Utricularia minor
Flowering Plants Utricularia vulgaris
Flowering Plants Vaccinium oxycoccos
Invertebrates Boloria freija
Invertebrates Boloria frigga
Mosses & Liverworts Calliergon richardsonii
Mosses & Liverworts Cinclidium subrotundum
Mosses & Liverworts Hamatocaulis vernicosus
Mosses & Liverworts Loeskypnum badium
Mosses & Liverworts Scorpidium revolvens
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum angustifolium
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum annulatum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum compactum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum fallax
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum flexuosum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum fuscum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum jensenii
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum lindbergii
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum magellanicum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum majus
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum papillosum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum platyphyllum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum pulchrum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum riparium
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum subfulvum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum subsecundum
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum teres
Mosses & Liverworts Sphagnum warnstorfii
Mosses & Liverworts Straminergon stramineum
Mosses & Liverworts Warnstorfia exannulata
Mosses & Liverworts Warnstorfia fluitans
Mosses & Liverworts Warnstorfia procera
Mosses & Liverworts Warnstorfia sarmentosa
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Anser fabalis Bean Goose Birds
Anthus pratensis Meadow Pipit Birds
Asio flammeus Short-eared Owl Birds
Circus cyaneus Hen Harrier Birds
Cygnus cygnus Whooper Swan Birds
Falco columbarius Merlin Birds
Falco subbuteo Hobby Birds
Gallinago gallinago Snipe Birds
Grus grus Crane Birds
Lagopus lagopus Willow Grouse Birds
Lanius excubitor Great Grey Shrike Birds
Limicola falcinellus Broad-billed Sandpiper Birds
Lymnocryptes minimus Jack Snipe Birds
Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail Birds
Numenius arquata Curlew Birds
Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel Birds
Phalaropus lobatus Red-necked Phalarope Birds
Philomachus pugnax Ruff Birds
Pluvialis apricaria Golden Plover Birds
Tringa erythropus Spotted Redshank Birds
Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper Birds
Tringa nebularia Greenshank Birds
Pinus sylvestris Conifers
Equisetum fluviatile Ferns
Huperzia selago Ferns
Selaginella selaginoides Ferns
Agrostis canina Flowering Plants
Andromeda polifolia Flowering Plants
Betula nana Flowering Plants
Betula pubescens Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis stricta Flowering Plants
Carex aquatilis Flowering Plants
Carex buxbaumii Flowering Plants
Carex chordorrhiza Flowering Plants
Carex diandra Flowering Plants
Carex dioica Flowering Plants
Carex heleonastes Flowering Plants
Carex lasiocarpa Flowering Plants
Carex limosa Flowering Plants
Carex livida Flowering Plants
Carex nigra Flowering Plants
Carex rostrata Flowering Plants
Carex rotundata Flowering Plants
Chamaedaphne calyculata Flowering Plants
Dactylorhiza maculata Flowering Plants
Drosera longifolia Flowering Plants
Drosera rotundifolia Flowering Plants
Epilobium palustre Flowering Plants
Eriophorum angustifolium Flowering Plants
Eriophorum gracile Flowering Plants
Eriophorum russeolum Flowering Plants
Eriophorum vaginatum Flowering Plants
Juncus stygius Flowering Plants
Menyanthes trifoliata Flowering Plants
Molinia caerulea Flowering Plants
Parnassia palustris Flowering Plants
Pedicularis palustris Flowering Plants
Pinguicula villosa Flowering Plants
Potentilla palustris Flowering Plants
Rubus chamaemorus Flowering Plants
Salix lapponum Flowering Plants
Salix myrtilloides Flowering Plants
Scheuchzeria palustris Flowering Plants
Solidago virgaurea Flowering Plants
Stellaria palustris Flowering Plants
Tofieldia pusilla Flowering Plants
Trichophorum alpinum Flowering Plants
Trichophorum cespitosum Flowering Plants
Utricularia intermedia Flowering Plants
Utricularia minor Flowering Plants
Utricularia vulgaris Flowering Plants
Vaccinium oxycoccos Flowering Plants
Boloria freija Frejya's Fritillary Invertebrates
Boloria frigga Frigga's Fritillary Invertebrates
Calliergon richardsonii Mosses & Liverworts
Cinclidium subrotundum Mosses & Liverworts
Hamatocaulis vernicosus Mosses & Liverworts
Loeskypnum badium Mosses & Liverworts
Scorpidium revolvens Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum angustifolium Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum annulatum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum compactum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum fallax Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum flexuosum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum fuscum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum jensenii Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum lindbergii Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum magellanicum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum majus Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum papillosum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum platyphyllum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum pulchrum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum riparium Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum subfulvum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum subsecundum Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum teres Mosses & Liverworts
Sphagnum warnstorfii Mosses & Liverworts
Straminergon stramineum Mosses & Liverworts
Warnstorfia exannulata Mosses & Liverworts
Warnstorfia fluitans Mosses & Liverworts
Warnstorfia procera Mosses & Liverworts
Warnstorfia sarmentosa Mosses & Liverworts

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 D3.2 Aapa mires same
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100