Red List habitat classification > RLE - Grasslands > RLE1.1g Perennial rocky grassland of Central Europe and the Carpathians

Perennial rocky grassland of Central Europe and the Carpathians

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLE1.1g
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

These open to relatively closed perennial grasslands occur on outcrops and steep slopes of mostly calcareous but also siliceous rocks. They are dominated by graminoids such as Bromopsis pannonica, Bromus riparius, Carex humilis, Festuca dalmatica, Festuca pallens and various species of Sesleria and Stipa. Perennial herbs are common, whereas other life forms such as chamaephytes, therophytes and geophytes occur with various abundance, although they are found in most stands. The participation of annuals increases significantly in the southern parts of the habitat’s range because of the stronger Mediterranean influence. From the phytogeographical point of view, these grasslands combine central European species with numerous submediterranean, continental steppic and de-alpine species. Especially on limestone or dolomite these grasslands can be species-rich and contain some species with narrow geographic ranges. Phytosociologically, this habitat type corresponds to the order Stipo pulcherrimae-Festucetalia pallentis (class: Festuco-Brometea).

These grasslands are distributed at low hilly and submontane areas of the Bohemian Massif, Alps, Carpathians, and low mountains and hilly lowlands of the northern and central Balkan Peninsula. Westwards the habitat reaches North-East France and adjacent Belgium, Germany and Switzerland. At many sites these grasslands represent natural vegetation, but in some places they developed as secondary vegetation of deforested areas on shallow soils. Especially on dolomite slopes continuous weathering of the parent rock into gravel particles maintains constant soil erosion which limits encroachment of woody plants and keeps the landscape open. On limestone and dolomite slopes there is often a distinct contrast in vegetation on slopes of different aspect. South-facing slopes harbor more open vegetation, often with less than 50% cover, with dominance of narrow-leaved tussock grasses and aromatic semi-scrubs. In contrast, north-facing slopes support denser grasslands dominated by various species of Sesleria that contain several species typical of higher altitudes of the Alps or the Carpathians which have scattered and in many cases probably relict occurrences at lower altitudes. Soils are various subtypes of Leptosol.

Most of these grasslands occur in naturally treeless areas on steep and naturally eroded slopes that are difficult to access and unsuitable for agriculture. These grasslands are very stable and usually are not directly endangered unless they are destroyed by quarrying. However, secondary grasslands on less steep slopes were traditionally maintained by grazing, especially by goats. When grazing ceases, they are subject to encroachment of shrubs and trees.

Indicators of good quality:

Most valuable stands occur at sites with long historical continuity which contains steno-endemic species and species with isolated occurrences, in many cases probably of relict origin. Indicators of good quality include:

·         Occurrence of endemic or rare species, or species at isolated localities far from their continuous range.

·         No signs of spread of mesophilous species or development of dense grassland.

·         No signs of encroachment of trees and shrubs.

·         In secondary grasslands continuation of grazing by goats or sheep.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The reduction in quantity and in biotic and abiotic quality over the last 50 years are both relatively small and the habitat is widespread in central and eastern Europe. Therefore a Least Concern (LC) status is concluded for this habitat.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Abandonment of pastoral systems, lack of grazing
  • Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
    • Open cast mining
  • Human intrusions and disturbances
    • Mountaineering, rock climbing, speleology
  • Pollution
    • Nitrogen-input
  • Natural biotic and abiotic processes (without catastrophes)
    • Biocenotic evolution, succession

Habitat restoration potential

Overgrown semi-natural sites possibly can be restored by removal of woody encroachment and re-introduction of a proper grazing system within perhaps 10 years.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

While natural stands of this habitat do not need special measures, for semi-natural stands the maintenance of the traditional grazing is essential, possibly accompanied by removal of woody encroachment. Additionally, direct destruction of well-developed examples of this habitat type by quarries or by rock climbing and similar outdoor sports should be prevented.

List of conservation and management needs

  • No measures
    • No measures needed for the conservation of the habitat/species
  • Measures related to agriculture and open habitats
    • Maintaining grasslands and other open habitats

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Austria Present 3.1 Decreasing Decreasing
Bulgaria Present 493 Decreasing Decreasing
Czech Republic Present 4 Decreasing Decreasing
France mainland Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Germany Present 4.5 Decreasing Decreasing
Hungary Present 5 Decreasing Stable
Luxembourg Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown
Poland Present 3.5 Decreasing Decreasing
Romania Present 10 Unknown Stable
Slovakia Present 9.7 Decreasing Decreasing
Slovenia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Belgium Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Croatia Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 25 Decreasing Decreasing
Kosovo Uncertain Unknown Decreasing Unknown
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Present 840 Decreasing Decreasing
Serbia Present Unknown Unknown Decreasing
Switzerland Present Unknown Unknown Decreasing
Liechtestein Uncertain - -

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 1055500 Not provided yet 848 The estimate for Bulgaria might be too high based on an inconsistent interpretation of the habitat type
EU28+ Not provided yet 849 The estimate for Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia might be too high based on an inconsistent interpretation of the habitat type
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Birds Anthus campestris
Birds Calandrella brachydactyla
Birds Oenanthe hispanica
Ferns Asplenium ruta-muraria
Ferns Asplenium septentrionale
Ferns Asplenium trichomanes
Flowering Plants Achillea ageratifolia
Flowering Plants Achillea clypeolata
Flowering Plants Achillea coarctata
Flowering Plants Achillea nobilis
Flowering Plants Acinos arvensis
Flowering Plants Agropyron cristatum
Flowering Plants Allium albidum
Flowering Plants Allium cupani
Flowering Plants Allium flavum
Flowering Plants Allium moschatum
Flowering Plants Allium sphaerocephalon
Flowering Plants Alyssum alyssoides
Flowering Plants Alyssum saxatile
Flowering Plants Anthemis carpatica
Flowering Plants Anthericum ramosum
Flowering Plants Anthyllis vulneraria
Flowering Plants Artemisia alba
Flowering Plants Asperula capitata
Flowering Plants Asperula cynanchica
Flowering Plants Asperula purpurea
Flowering Plants Asphodeline lutea
Flowering Plants Asphodelus albus
Flowering Plants Aster oleifolius
Flowering Plants Astragalus onobrychis
Flowering Plants Bromus moesiacus
Flowering Plants Bromus riparius
Flowering Plants Bromus squarrosus
Flowering Plants Carduus collinus
Flowering Plants Carex caryophyllea
Flowering Plants Carex humilis
Flowering Plants Centaurea atropurpurea
Flowering Plants Centaurea reichenbachii
Flowering Plants Centaurea triniifolia
Flowering Plants Chrysopogon gryllus
Flowering Plants Clypeola jonthlaspi
Flowering Plants Convolvulus cantabrica
Flowering Plants Coronilla scorpioides
Flowering Plants Dianthus carthusianorum
Flowering Plants Dianthus giganteiformis
Flowering Plants Dianthus giganteus
Flowering Plants Dianthus gratianopolitanus
Flowering Plants Dianthus spiculifolius
Flowering Plants Edraianthus serbicus
Flowering Plants Erysimum witmannii
Flowering Plants Euphorbia cyparissias
Flowering Plants Euphorbia myrsinites
Flowering Plants Festuca dalmatica
Flowering Plants Festuca pallens
Flowering Plants Festuca pseudodalmatica
Flowering Plants Festuca stricta
Flowering Plants Fumana procumbens
Flowering Plants Galium glaucum
Flowering Plants Galium lucidum
Flowering Plants Globularia bisnagarica
Flowering Plants Helianthemum canum
Flowering Plants Helianthemum nummularium
Flowering Plants Helictotrichon decorum
Flowering Plants Hornungia petraea
Flowering Plants Hyacinthella leucophaea
Flowering Plants Hypericum olympicum
Flowering Plants Hypericum rumeliacum
Flowering Plants Hyssopus officinalis
Flowering Plants Inula aschersoniana
Flowering Plants Inula oculus-christi
Flowering Plants Inula spiraeifolia
Flowering Plants Iris pumila
Flowering Plants Iris variegata
Flowering Plants Jasione montana
Flowering Plants Jurinea glycacantha
Flowering Plants Jurinea mollis
Flowering Plants Koeleria macrantha
Flowering Plants Koeleria splendens
Flowering Plants Leontodon crispus
Flowering Plants Leontodon incanus
Flowering Plants Linaria angustissima
Flowering Plants Linum tenuifolium
Flowering Plants Melica ciliata
Flowering Plants Minuartia hirsuta
Flowering Plants Minuartia verna
Flowering Plants Orlaya grandiflora
Flowering Plants Ornithogalum nanum
Flowering Plants Paeonia tenuifolia
Flowering Plants Paronychia cephalotes
Flowering Plants Paronychia kapela
Flowering Plants Petrorhagia saxifraga
Flowering Plants Peucedanum tauricum
Flowering Plants Pilosella officinarum
Flowering Plants Poa bulbosa
Flowering Plants Poa pannonica
Flowering Plants Potentilla argentea
Flowering Plants Potentilla cinerea
Flowering Plants Psilurus incurvus
Flowering Plants Queria hispanica
Flowering Plants Rumex acetosella
Flowering Plants Sanguisorba minor
Flowering Plants Satureja coerulea
Flowering Plants Satureja montana
Flowering Plants Satureja pilosa
Flowering Plants Saxifraga paniculata
Flowering Plants Scleranthus perennis
Flowering Plants Scorzonera austriaca
Flowering Plants Sedum hispanicum
Flowering Plants Sedum sexangulare
Flowering Plants Sempervivum marmoreum
Flowering Plants Seseli gracile
Flowering Plants Seseli leucospermum
Flowering Plants Seseli osseum
Flowering Plants Seseli pallasii
Flowering Plants Seseli rigidum
Flowering Plants Sesleria caerulea
Flowering Plants Sesleria heuflerana
Flowering Plants Sesleria latifolia
Flowering Plants Sesleria rigida
Flowering Plants Sesleria sadlerana
Flowering Plants Silene armeria
Flowering Plants Silene bupleuroides
Flowering Plants Silene nutans
Flowering Plants Stachys recta
Flowering Plants Stipa eriocaulis
Flowering Plants Stipa pulcherrima
Flowering Plants Teucrium chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Teucrium montanum
Flowering Plants Teucrium polium
Flowering Plants Thesium alpinum
Flowering Plants Thymus comosus
Flowering Plants Thymus praecox
Flowering Plants Thymus striatus
Flowering Plants Trifolium arvense
Flowering Plants Trigonella gladiata
Flowering Plants Trigonella monspeliaca
Flowering Plants Trinia glauca
Flowering Plants Velezia rigida
Flowering Plants Veronica spicata
Flowering Plants Viola jooi
Flowering Plants Xeranthemum annuum
Flowering Plants Xeranthemum cylindraceum
Fungi Cladonia convoluta
Fungi Cladonia pyxidata
Invertebrates Calliptamus italicus
Mosses & Liverworts Ceratodon purpureus
Mosses & Liverworts Ditrichum flexicaule
Mosses & Liverworts Encalypta streptocarpa
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichum piliferum
Mosses & Liverworts Syntrichia ruralis
Mosses & Liverworts Tortella inclinata
Mosses & Liverworts Tortella tortuosa
Mosses & Liverworts Weissia longifolia
Reptiles Elaphe sauromates
Reptiles Testudo graeca
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Anthus campestris Tawny Pipit Birds
Calandrella brachydactyla Short-toed Lark Birds
Oenanthe hispanica Black-eared Wheatear Birds
Asplenium ruta-muraria Ferns
Asplenium septentrionale Ferns
Asplenium trichomanes Ferns
Achillea ageratifolia Flowering Plants
Achillea clypeolata Flowering Plants
Achillea coarctata Flowering Plants
Achillea nobilis Flowering Plants
Acinos arvensis Flowering Plants
Agropyron cristatum Flowering Plants
Allium albidum Flowering Plants
Allium cupani Flowering Plants
Allium flavum Flowering Plants
Allium moschatum Flowering Plants
Allium sphaerocephalon Flowering Plants
Alyssum alyssoides Flowering Plants
Alyssum saxatile Flowering Plants
Anthemis carpatica Flowering Plants
Anthericum ramosum Flowering Plants
Anthyllis vulneraria Flowering Plants
Artemisia alba Flowering Plants
Asperula capitata Flowering Plants
Asperula cynanchica Flowering Plants
Asperula purpurea Flowering Plants
Asphodeline lutea Flowering Plants
Asphodelus albus Flowering Plants
Aster oleifolius Flowering Plants
Astragalus onobrychis Flowering Plants
Bromus moesiacus Flowering Plants
Bromus riparius Flowering Plants
Bromus squarrosus Flowering Plants
Carduus collinus Flowering Plants
Carex caryophyllea Flowering Plants
Carex humilis Flowering Plants
Centaurea atropurpurea Flowering Plants
Centaurea reichenbachii Flowering Plants
Centaurea triniifolia Flowering Plants
Chrysopogon gryllus Flowering Plants
Clypeola jonthlaspi Flowering Plants
Convolvulus cantabrica Flowering Plants
Coronilla scorpioides Flowering Plants
Dianthus carthusianorum Flowering Plants
Dianthus giganteiformis Flowering Plants
Dianthus giganteus Flowering Plants
Dianthus gratianopolitanus Flowering Plants
Dianthus spiculifolius Flowering Plants
Edraianthus serbicus Flowering Plants
Erysimum witmannii Flowering Plants
Euphorbia cyparissias Flowering Plants
Euphorbia myrsinites Flowering Plants
Festuca dalmatica Flowering Plants
Festuca pallens Flowering Plants
Festuca pseudodalmatica Flowering Plants
Festuca stricta Flowering Plants
Fumana procumbens Flowering Plants
Galium glaucum Flowering Plants
Galium lucidum Flowering Plants
Globularia bisnagarica Flowering Plants
Helianthemum canum Flowering Plants
Helianthemum nummularium Flowering Plants
Helictotrichon decorum Flowering Plants
Hornungia petraea Flowering Plants
Hyacinthella leucophaea Flowering Plants
Hypericum olympicum Flowering Plants
Hypericum rumeliacum Flowering Plants
Hyssopus officinalis Flowering Plants
Inula aschersoniana Flowering Plants
Inula oculus-christi Flowering Plants
Inula spiraeifolia Flowering Plants
Iris pumila Flowering Plants
Iris variegata Flowering Plants
Jasione montana Flowering Plants
Jurinea glycacantha Flowering Plants
Jurinea mollis Flowering Plants
Koeleria macrantha Flowering Plants
Koeleria splendens Flowering Plants
Leontodon crispus Flowering Plants
Leontodon incanus Flowering Plants
Linaria angustissima Flowering Plants
Linum tenuifolium Flowering Plants
Melica ciliata Flowering Plants
Minuartia hirsuta Flowering Plants
Minuartia verna Flowering Plants
Orlaya grandiflora Flowering Plants
Ornithogalum nanum Flowering Plants
Paeonia tenuifolia Flowering Plants
Paronychia cephalotes Flowering Plants
Paronychia kapela Flowering Plants
Petrorhagia saxifraga Flowering Plants
Peucedanum tauricum Flowering Plants
Pilosella officinarum Flowering Plants
Poa bulbosa Flowering Plants
Poa pannonica Flowering Plants
Potentilla argentea Flowering Plants
Potentilla cinerea Flowering Plants
Psilurus incurvus Flowering Plants
Queria hispanica Flowering Plants
Rumex acetosella Flowering Plants
Sanguisorba minor Flowering Plants
Satureja coerulea Flowering Plants
Satureja montana Flowering Plants
Satureja pilosa Flowering Plants
Saxifraga paniculata Flowering Plants
Scleranthus perennis Flowering Plants
Scorzonera austriaca Flowering Plants
Sedum hispanicum Flowering Plants
Sedum sexangulare Flowering Plants
Sempervivum marmoreum Flowering Plants
Seseli gracile Flowering Plants
Seseli leucospermum Flowering Plants
Seseli osseum Flowering Plants
Seseli pallasii Flowering Plants
Seseli rigidum Flowering Plants
Sesleria caerulea Flowering Plants
Sesleria heuflerana Flowering Plants
Sesleria latifolia Flowering Plants
Sesleria rigida Flowering Plants
Sesleria sadlerana Flowering Plants
Silene armeria Flowering Plants
Silene bupleuroides Flowering Plants
Silene nutans Flowering Plants
Stachys recta Flowering Plants
Stipa eriocaulis Flowering Plants
Stipa pulcherrima Flowering Plants
Teucrium chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Teucrium montanum Flowering Plants
Teucrium polium Flowering Plants
Thesium alpinum Flowering Plants
Thymus comosus Flowering Plants
Thymus praecox Flowering Plants
Thymus striatus Flowering Plants
Trifolium arvense Flowering Plants
Trigonella gladiata Flowering Plants
Trigonella monspeliaca Flowering Plants
Trinia glauca Flowering Plants
Velezia rigida Flowering Plants
Veronica spicata Flowering Plants
Viola jooi Flowering Plants
Xeranthemum annuum Flowering Plants
Xeranthemum cylindraceum Flowering Plants
Cladonia convoluta Fungi
Cladonia pyxidata Fungi
Calliptamus italicus Invertebrates
Ceratodon purpureus Mosses & Liverworts
Ditrichum flexicaule Mosses & Liverworts
Encalypta streptocarpa Mosses & Liverworts
Polytrichum piliferum Mosses & Liverworts
Syntrichia ruralis Mosses & Liverworts
Tortella inclinata Mosses & Liverworts
Tortella tortuosa Mosses & Liverworts
Weissia longifolia Mosses & Liverworts
Elaphe sauromates Reptiles
Testudo graeca Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise Reptiles

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
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