Red List habitat classification > RLE - Grasslands > RLE3.3 Submediterranean moist meadow

Submediterranean moist meadow

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLE3.3
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat type comprises hay meadows that cover riverside terraces and gentle slopes. It represents typical lowland communities, that sometimes appear at higher altitude, up to 1 000 m. The ground is generally flat, only rarely the inclination is more pronounced. The site conditions are humid to rather wet, due to relatively high amounts of rainfall and the fact that groundwater level is close to the surface. Often the sites are inundated during winter and spring. In July and August, the ground conditions may become rather dry. These wet meadows have a pronounced phenology. In early spring, yellow flowering Ranunculus species may prevail, while later on various Trifolium species as well as Alopecurus rendlei (Alopecurus utriculatus) appear. Hay making takes place mainly in May and June. Sometimes, grazing is practiced, that may change the species composition.

The climate is submediterranean and the habitat type can be found in the coastal region of the Adriatic Sea, in the central part of the Italian Peninsula, the southern edge of the Pannonian Basin and in the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The climax vegetation of the areas where the habitat occurs belongs to the class Quercetea pubescentis. The soil mainly consists of – rather sandy – clay, locally mixed with river deposits. Quite often the sites are moderately salted, which also effects the species composition. Nevertheless, the alliances that can be assigned to this habitat type do not vary that much that a division in subtypes is needed. The Trifolion resupinati, for instance, has its main occurence in the central Balkans with its centre of distribution in Macedonia, whereas the Trifolion pallidi is found on floodplains that are less dry in summer, having its center of distribution in eastern Croatia and western Serbia. The  Molinio-Hordeion secalini, of which the distribution stretches from Slovenia through Croatia to Bosnia and Herzegovina,  is also rather humid. The Trifolio-Ranunculion pedati is sub-halophytic and restricted to the Pannonion plain; the Ranunculion velutini is bound to central Italy.

These grasslands are in good condition, when they appear on primary sites and are maintained through traditional management. In case the meadows are drained or watered artificially, the species composition would change dramatically. Since these sites are fertile, the surfaces can be ploughed out and converted to fields. On the other hand their surfaces will overgrow with shrubs and tall grasses in case of abandonment of traditional management. Regular mowing prevents the beginning of secondary succession towards forests. One of the threats is also use of fertilizers and sawing of seeds. One additional threat is the use of fertilizers and the sawing of seeds. Another  treat is intensive grazing, that also changes species composition.

Indicators of good quality are:

  • Species richness of the herb layer
  • Absence of invasive, tall herb and shrub species
  • Regular mowing
  • Absence of intensive grazing

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

This habitat type is not threatened in both EU28 and EU28+. Recent declines in quantity and in quality are relatively small. However, for the future it has to be monitored whether the traditional land use of hay making can be maintained in enough sites on the Balkan to prevent the habitat from becoming threatened.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

low
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Agricultural intensification
    • Abandonment / Lack of  mowing
    • Fertilisation
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
  • Natural System modifications
    • Landfill, land reclamation and drying out, general
    • Modification of hydrographic functioning, general

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat type is depending on human intervention for restoration, by re-introducing mowing regimes and improving hydrological conditions.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Although these grasslands are still available over large areas and under rather well conditions (mainly outside EU28+), there are certain risks for degradation. The main factors are continuation of the hay making systems and safeguarding the appropriate hydrological conditions.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to agriculture and open habitats
    • Maintaining grasslands and other open habitats
  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring/Improving the hydrological regime

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bulgaria Present unknown Unknown Unknown
Croatia Present 30 Decreasing Decreasing
Italy mainland Present 49 Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 315 Decreasing Decreasing
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Present 315 Decreasing Decreasing
Albania Present unknown Unknown Unknown
Serbia Present unknown Unknown Unknown

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 913850 60 >750
EU28+ 132 >750
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Ferns Ophioglossum vulgatum
Flowering Plants Achillea millefolium
Flowering Plants Agrostis stolonifera
Flowering Plants Alopecurus pratensis
Flowering Plants Alopecurus rendlei
Flowering Plants Alopecurus utriculatus
Flowering Plants Anthoxanthum odoratum
Flowering Plants Bromus racemosus
Flowering Plants Carex distans
Flowering Plants Carex hirta
Flowering Plants Carex otrubae
Flowering Plants Carex tomentosa
Flowering Plants Carex vulpina
Flowering Plants Centaurea jacea
Flowering Plants Centaurea pannonica
Flowering Plants Cichorium intybus
Flowering Plants Cirsium canum
Flowering Plants Clematis integrifolia
Flowering Plants Convolvulus arvensis
Flowering Plants Crepis setosa
Flowering Plants Cynosurus cristatus
Flowering Plants Daucus carota
Flowering Plants Deschampsia cespitosa
Flowering Plants Deschampsia media
Flowering Plants Edraianthus dalmaticus
Flowering Plants Elymus repens
Flowering Plants Festuca pratensis
Flowering Plants Galium debile
Flowering Plants Galium verum
Flowering Plants Gaudinia fragilis
Flowering Plants Gratiola officinalis
Flowering Plants Holcus lanatus
Flowering Plants Hordeum murinum
Flowering Plants Hordeum secalinum
Flowering Plants Lathyrus nissolia
Flowering Plants Lathyrus pannonicus
Flowering Plants Lathyrus pratensis
Flowering Plants Leucanthemum vulgare
Flowering Plants Leucojum aestivum
Flowering Plants Lolium perenne
Flowering Plants Lotus corniculatus
Flowering Plants Lychnis flos-cuculi
Flowering Plants Lysimachia nummularia
Flowering Plants Lythrum salicaria
Flowering Plants Medicago arabica
Flowering Plants Medicago hispida
Flowering Plants Moenchia mantica
Flowering Plants Molinia caerulea
Flowering Plants Narcissus poeticus
Flowering Plants Oenanthe silaifolia
Flowering Plants Oenanthe stenoloba
Flowering Plants Orchis laxiflora
Flowering Plants Peucedanum coriaceum
Flowering Plants Plantago lanceolata
Flowering Plants Poa pratensis
Flowering Plants Poa trivialis
Flowering Plants Podospermum canum
Flowering Plants Potentilla reptans
Flowering Plants Prunella vulgaris
Flowering Plants Ranunculus acris
Flowering Plants Ranunculus marginatus
Flowering Plants Ranunculus polyanthemos
Flowering Plants Ranunculus repens
Flowering Plants Ranunculus sardous
Flowering Plants Ranunculus velutinus
Flowering Plants Rhinanthus minor
Flowering Plants Rorippa sylvestris
Flowering Plants Rumex acetosa
Flowering Plants Rumex crispus
Flowering Plants Scilla litardierei
Flowering Plants Scutellaria hastifolia
Flowering Plants Serratula tinctoria
Flowering Plants Symphytum officinale
Flowering Plants Tragopogon orientalis
Flowering Plants Tragopogon pratensis
Flowering Plants Trifolium balansae
Flowering Plants Trifolium cinctum
Flowering Plants Trifolium dubium
Flowering Plants Trifolium fragiferum
Flowering Plants Trifolium pallidum
Flowering Plants Trifolium patens
Flowering Plants Trifolium pratense
Flowering Plants Trifolium repens
Flowering Plants Trifolium resupinatum
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ophioglossum vulgatum Ferns
Achillea millefolium Flowering Plants
Agrostis stolonifera Flowering Plants
Alopecurus pratensis Flowering Plants
Alopecurus rendlei Flowering Plants
Alopecurus utriculatus Flowering Plants
Anthoxanthum odoratum Flowering Plants
Bromus racemosus Flowering Plants
Carex distans Flowering Plants
Carex hirta Flowering Plants
Carex otrubae Flowering Plants
Carex tomentosa Flowering Plants
Carex vulpina Flowering Plants
Centaurea jacea Flowering Plants
Centaurea pannonica Flowering Plants
Cichorium intybus Flowering Plants
Cirsium canum Flowering Plants
Clematis integrifolia Flowering Plants
Convolvulus arvensis Flowering Plants
Crepis setosa Flowering Plants
Cynosurus cristatus Flowering Plants
Daucus carota Flowering Plants
Deschampsia cespitosa Flowering Plants
Deschampsia media Flowering Plants
Edraianthus dalmaticus Flowering Plants
Elymus repens Flowering Plants
Festuca pratensis Flowering Plants
Galium debile Flowering Plants
Galium verum Flowering Plants
Gaudinia fragilis Flowering Plants
Gratiola officinalis Flowering Plants
Holcus lanatus Flowering Plants
Hordeum murinum Flowering Plants
Hordeum secalinum Flowering Plants
Lathyrus nissolia Flowering Plants
Lathyrus pannonicus Flowering Plants
Lathyrus pratensis Flowering Plants
Leucanthemum vulgare Flowering Plants
Leucojum aestivum Flowering Plants
Lolium perenne Flowering Plants
Lotus corniculatus Flowering Plants
Lychnis flos-cuculi Flowering Plants
Lysimachia nummularia Flowering Plants
Lythrum salicaria Flowering Plants
Medicago arabica Flowering Plants
Medicago hispida Flowering Plants
Moenchia mantica Flowering Plants
Molinia caerulea Flowering Plants
Narcissus poeticus Flowering Plants
Oenanthe silaifolia Flowering Plants
Oenanthe stenoloba Flowering Plants
Orchis laxiflora Flowering Plants
Peucedanum coriaceum Flowering Plants
Plantago lanceolata Flowering Plants
Poa pratensis Flowering Plants
Poa trivialis Flowering Plants
Podospermum canum Flowering Plants
Potentilla reptans Flowering Plants
Prunella vulgaris Flowering Plants
Ranunculus acris Flowering Plants
Ranunculus marginatus Flowering Plants
Ranunculus polyanthemos Flowering Plants
Ranunculus repens Flowering Plants
Ranunculus sardous Flowering Plants
Ranunculus velutinus Flowering Plants
Rhinanthus minor Flowering Plants
Rorippa sylvestris Flowering Plants
Rumex acetosa Flowering Plants
Rumex crispus Flowering Plants
Scilla litardierei Flowering Plants
Scutellaria hastifolia Flowering Plants
Serratula tinctoria Flowering Plants
Symphytum officinale Flowering Plants
Tragopogon orientalis Flowering Plants
Tragopogon pratensis Flowering Plants
Trifolium balansae Flowering Plants
Trifolium cinctum Flowering Plants
Trifolium dubium Flowering Plants
Trifolium fragiferum Flowering Plants
Trifolium pallidum Flowering Plants
Trifolium patens Flowering Plants
Trifolium pratense Flowering Plants
Trifolium repens Flowering Plants
Trifolium resupinatum Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 E3.3 Sub-mediterranean humid meadows same
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