Red List habitat classification > RLG - Forests > RLG3.4b Temperate and submediterranean montane Pinus sylvestris-Pinus nigra woodland

Temperate and submediterranean montane Pinus sylvestris-Pinus nigra woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLG3.4b
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat is formed by Scots and Black Pine forests (mostly xerophilous, but also some mesophilous), distributed in isolated and not very large stands on calcareous (limestone, dolomite) or ultramafic (serpentine) rocks, in the Alps, Jura, Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Carpathian, Dinaride and Bulgarian mountains. The Black Pine forests of the Crimean Mountains which are rich in steppe and submediterranean species also belong to this habitat. These communities are mainly relic and limited to specific kinds of terrain. They occur in different vegetation belts, from the xerothermic oak belt, through the mesophilic hornbeam-beech forest belt up to the microthermic coniferous forest belt and hence fall into different climatic and geographical territorial subdivisions. The aspect of the slopes with Black Pine forest can vary but is mainly southern, sometimes eastern or western and the slopes can be very steep. The Scots Pine forests mainly occupy slopes with a northerly exposure and inhabit the low and middle part of mountains and valleys in the Alps, with altitudes between 500 and 1,400 m asl. The terrain is mostly steep or very steep slopes, with many rock outcrops. The soils are mostly shallow immature rendzic leptosols, often eroded. The humidity can vary throughout the growing season from low to moderate. These forests are mostly monodominant or, less commonly, have a mixed canopy with various other conifers, for example Picea abies and Larix decidua, and deciduous trees including Sorbus aria, depending on the neighbouring communities. The forests are open, the trees often not much taller than 10 m, with a rich shrub or herbaceous layer and the flora is characterized by a significant proportion of central and south-European (submediterranean) species; many species of the boreal/continental taiga are absent. On dry alluvial plains and fans, there are more mesophytic pine woodlands with Salix purpurea, S. elaeagnos and S. daphnoides and a grassy field layer with Calamagrostis varia and Molinia arundinacea. In the western Alps, herbs such as Ononis rotundifolia, Astragalus monspessulanus and A. vesicarius provide a floristic link with the open pine woodlands of the southern slopes of the Pyrenees where Juniperus communis subsp. hermisphaerica, Buxus sempervirens and Cytisus oromediterraneus occur in the shrub layer, accompanied on more siliceous rocks by Vaccinium myrtillus, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Calluna vulgaris. The Scots Pine forests of the Southern Alps have a dense understorey of Erica carnea (Erico carneae-Pinion) while distinctive Scots Pine forests occur locally in the Slovakian Carpathians with endemics such as Pulsatilla slavica, Thymus carpathicus, Campanula carpatica, Festuca tatrae (Pulsatilo slavicae-Pinion). The Scots Pine forests on amphibolites and limestone in the Southern Carpathians also have a diverse understorey with some relict and submediterranean species such as Daphne blagayana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Sesleria rigida. The forests dominated by Black Pine (Erico-Fraxinion orni, Fraxino orni-Pinion nigrae, Chamaecytiso hirsuti-Pinion pallasianae) are more diverse and have endemic subspecies in the southern part of habitat’s range – Italian and Slovenian Alps, Dinarides, Bulgarian mountains and Romanian Carpathians. The dominant species there are represented by different subspecies – subsp. nigra to the north, subsp. pallasiana to the south, subsp. dalmatica as a local endemic in the Croatian Dinarides. The shrubs and herb layers are even more diverse than in Scots Pine forests and include many species from neighbouring deciduous and coniferous forests. On serpentine rocks, there are also some typical serpentinophytes. The age of forests can be 80-100 years, even up to 200 years in some stands. Throughout the range of this habitat, Black and Scots pines are widely cultivated and numerous coniferous plantations exist often alongside the natural forests. These plantations, if occurring at sites where Black or Scots pine forest is not natural vegetation, are not included in the habitat.

Indicators of quality:

• No forest exploitations (if applicable, mainly azonal types with high nature value).
• Natural composition of canopy.
• Structural diversity/ complexity with (semi)natural age structure or completeness of layers.
• Typical flora and fauna composition of the region.
• Presence of old trees and a variety of dead wood (lying or standing) and the associated flora, fauna and fungi.
• Presence of natural disturbance such as treefall openings with natural regeneration.
• Long historical continuity (ancient woodland) with high species diversity.
• Survival of larger stands of forest without anthropogenic fragmentation and isolation (to support fauna which need large undisturbed forests).
• Absence of non-native species in all layers (flora and fauna).
• No signs of eutrophication or pollution.
• No man-induced very high population levels of ungulates.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

This habitat is assessed as Least Concern (LC), because it has an extensive distribution across several European mountain ranges, the reduction in area has been small (in some areas this habitat type has been stable or even slightly spreading) and the decline in quality only affects a small proportion of the total area.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest and Plantation management & use
  • Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
    • Mining and quarrying
  • Human intrusions and disturbances
    • Outdoor sports and leisure activities, recreational activities
    • Skiing, off-piste
  • Invasive, other problematic species and genes
    • Problematic native species
  • Natural biotic and abiotic processes (without catastrophes)
    • Other forms or mixed forms of interspecific floral competition
  • Climate change
    • Temperature changes (e.g. rise of temperature & extremes)

Habitat restoration potential

After logging or burning these forests can regenerate within 20 years by natural succession without human intervation.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Stable
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

In most cases these forests do not require any management. They should be protected from logging and destruction by opening and extension of stone quarries.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Adapt forest management

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Austria Present 700 Stable Unknown
Croatia Present 48 Decreasing Stable
Czech Republic Present 0.6 Decreasing Stable
France mainland Present 5,440 Stable Increasing
Germany Present <20 Decreasing Stable
Hungary Present 0.1 Decreasing Decreasing
Italy mainland Present 1,269 Stable Stable
Poland Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown
Slovakia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Slovenia Present 33 Stable Stable
Spain mainland Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown
Bulgaria Present 1,900 Decreasing Decreasing
Romania Present 15 Stable Stable
Cyprus Present 33 Stable Stable
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 2,765 Stable Stable
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 870 Stable Stable
Kosovo Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Present 310 Stable Increasing
Montenegro Present 245 Unknown Decreasing
Serbia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Switzerland Present 200 Decreasing Decreasing

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 1691700 943 >9,398
EU28+ 1055 >10,742
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Abies alba
Conifers Juniperus communis
Conifers Larix decidua
Conifers Picea abies
Conifers Pinus nigra
Ferns Asplenium cuneifolium
Ferns Ceterach officinarum
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Amelanchier ovalis
Flowering Plants Anthemis carpatica
Flowering Plants Anthericum ramosum
Flowering Plants Aquilegia einseleana
Flowering Plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Flowering Plants Asperula capitata
Flowering Plants Astragalus monspessulanus
Flowering Plants Berberis vulgaris
Flowering Plants Betula pendula
Flowering Plants Biscutella laevigata
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum
Flowering Plants Buphthalmum salicifolium
Flowering Plants Buxus sempervirens
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis varia
Flowering Plants Calluna vulgaris
Flowering Plants Campanula carpatica
Flowering Plants Campanula divergens
Flowering Plants Carex alba
Flowering Plants Carpinus orientalis
Flowering Plants Centaurea rhenana
Flowering Plants Chamaecytisus supinus
Flowering Plants Coronilla vaginalis
Flowering Plants Corylus colurna
Flowering Plants Cotinus coggygria
Flowering Plants Cotoneaster integerrimus
Flowering Plants Crocus veluchensis
Flowering Plants Cyclamen purpurascens
Flowering Plants Daphne blagayana
Flowering Plants Deschampsia flexuosa
Flowering Plants Dianthus carthusianorum
Flowering Plants Epipactis atrorubens
Flowering Plants Erica carnea
Flowering Plants Erythronium dens-canis
Flowering Plants Euphorbia amygdaloides
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Festuca tatrae
Flowering Plants Festuca xanthina
Flowering Plants Fraxinus ornus
Flowering Plants Galium lucidum
Flowering Plants Genista januensis
Flowering Plants Genista radiata
Flowering Plants Geranium sanguineum
Flowering Plants Globularia aphyllanthes
Flowering Plants Goodyera repens
Flowering Plants Gymnadenia odoratissima
Flowering Plants Helianthemum nummularium
Flowering Plants Helleborus niger
Flowering Plants Hepatica nobilis
Flowering Plants Hieracium bifidum
Flowering Plants Hippocrepis comosa
Flowering Plants Hypericum rochelii
Flowering Plants Iris ruthenica
Flowering Plants Kernera saxatilis
Flowering Plants Laserpitium krapfii
Flowering Plants Lembotropis nigricans
Flowering Plants Leontodon incanus
Flowering Plants Linum flavum
Flowering Plants Luzula sylvatica
Flowering Plants Melampyrum angustissimum
Flowering Plants Molinia arundinacea
Flowering Plants Molinia caerulea
Flowering Plants Monotropa hypopitys
Flowering Plants Neottia nidus-avis
Flowering Plants Ononis rotundifolia
Flowering Plants Ostrya carpinifolia
Flowering Plants Phyteuma orbiculare
Flowering Plants Pimpinella saxifraga
Flowering Plants Polygala chamaebuxus
Flowering Plants Populus tremula
Flowering Plants Potentilla heptaphylla
Flowering Plants Pulsatilla slavica
Flowering Plants Pyrola chlorantha
Flowering Plants Rosa pendulina
Flowering Plants Rubus saxatilis
Flowering Plants Salix purpurea
Flowering Plants Seseli libanotis
Flowering Plants Sesleria caerulea
Flowering Plants Sesleria rigida
Flowering Plants Sorbus aria
Flowering Plants Stachys scardica
Flowering Plants Symphytum tuberosum
Flowering Plants Teucrium chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Thymus carpathicus
Flowering Plants Tolpis staticifolia
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Veronica chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Vicia villosa
Fungi Cladonia fimbriata
Mosses & Liverworts Bryum capillare
Mosses & Liverworts Dicranum polysetum
Mosses & Liverworts Ditrichum flexicaule
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Mosses & Liverworts Hypnum cupressiforme
Mosses & Liverworts Leucobryum glaucum
Mosses & Liverworts Pleurozium schreberi
Mosses & Liverworts Pseudoscleropodium purum
Mosses & Liverworts Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus
Mosses & Liverworts Rhytidium rugosum
Mosses & Liverworts Tortella tortuosa
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Abies alba Conifers
Juniperus communis Conifers
Larix decidua Conifers
Picea abies Conifers
Pinus nigra Conifers
Asplenium cuneifolium Ferns
Ceterach officinarum Ferns
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Amelanchier ovalis Flowering Plants
Anthemis carpatica Flowering Plants
Anthericum ramosum Flowering Plants
Aquilegia einseleana Flowering Plants
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Flowering Plants
Asperula capitata Flowering Plants
Astragalus monspessulanus Flowering Plants
Berberis vulgaris Flowering Plants
Betula pendula Flowering Plants
Biscutella laevigata Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants
Buphthalmum salicifolium Flowering Plants
Buxus sempervirens Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis varia Flowering Plants
Calluna vulgaris Flowering Plants
Campanula carpatica Flowering Plants
Campanula divergens Flowering Plants
Carex alba Flowering Plants
Carpinus orientalis Flowering Plants
Centaurea rhenana Flowering Plants
Chamaecytisus supinus Flowering Plants
Coronilla vaginalis Flowering Plants
Corylus colurna Flowering Plants
Cotinus coggygria Flowering Plants
Cotoneaster integerrimus Flowering Plants
Crocus veluchensis Flowering Plants
Cyclamen purpurascens Flowering Plants
Daphne blagayana Flowering Plants
Deschampsia flexuosa Flowering Plants
Dianthus carthusianorum Flowering Plants
Epipactis atrorubens Flowering Plants
Erica carnea Flowering Plants
Erythronium dens-canis Flowering Plants
Euphorbia amygdaloides Flowering Plants
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Festuca tatrae Flowering Plants
Festuca xanthina Flowering Plants
Fraxinus ornus Flowering Plants
Galium lucidum Flowering Plants
Genista januensis Flowering Plants
Genista radiata Flowering Plants
Geranium sanguineum Flowering Plants
Globularia aphyllanthes Flowering Plants
Goodyera repens Flowering Plants
Gymnadenia odoratissima Flowering Plants
Helianthemum nummularium Flowering Plants
Helleborus niger Flowering Plants
Hepatica nobilis Flowering Plants
Hieracium bifidum Flowering Plants
Hippocrepis comosa Flowering Plants
Hypericum rochelii Flowering Plants
Iris ruthenica Flowering Plants
Kernera saxatilis Flowering Plants
Laserpitium krapfii Flowering Plants
Lembotropis nigricans Flowering Plants
Leontodon incanus Flowering Plants
Linum flavum Flowering Plants
Luzula sylvatica Flowering Plants
Melampyrum angustissimum Flowering Plants
Molinia arundinacea Flowering Plants
Molinia caerulea Flowering Plants
Monotropa hypopitys Flowering Plants
Neottia nidus-avis Flowering Plants
Ononis rotundifolia Flowering Plants
Ostrya carpinifolia Flowering Plants
Phyteuma orbiculare Flowering Plants
Pimpinella saxifraga Flowering Plants
Polygala chamaebuxus Flowering Plants
Populus tremula Flowering Plants
Potentilla heptaphylla Flowering Plants
Pulsatilla slavica Flowering Plants
Pyrola chlorantha Flowering Plants
Rosa pendulina Flowering Plants
Rubus saxatilis Flowering Plants
Salix purpurea Flowering Plants
Seseli libanotis Flowering Plants
Sesleria caerulea Flowering Plants
Sesleria rigida Flowering Plants
Sorbus aria Flowering Plants
Stachys scardica Flowering Plants
Symphytum tuberosum Flowering Plants
Teucrium chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Thymus carpathicus Flowering Plants
Tolpis staticifolia Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Veronica chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Vicia villosa Flowering Plants
Cladonia fimbriata Fungi
Bryum capillare Mosses & Liverworts
Dicranum polysetum Mosses & Liverworts
Ditrichum flexicaule Mosses & Liverworts
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Hypnum cupressiforme Mosses & Liverworts
Leucobryum glaucum Mosses & Liverworts
Pleurozium schreberi Mosses & Liverworts
Pseudoscleropodium purum Mosses & Liverworts
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Mosses & Liverworts
Rhytidium rugosum Mosses & Liverworts
Tortella tortuosa Mosses & Liverworts

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G3.5 Pinus nigra woodland overlap
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G3.4 Pinus sylvestris woodland south of the taiga overlap
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