Red List habitat classification > RLG - Forests > RLG3.4c Mediterranean montane Pinus sylvestris-Pinus nigra woodland

Mediterranean montane Pinus sylvestris-Pinus nigra woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLG3.4c
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

Pinus nigra has been widely planted through the Mediterranean, but it remains the natural dominant tree species that forms forests in more drought-prone situations, at scattered localities through the mountains of Spain, Corsica, southern Italy, and at higher elevations further south where altitude moderates the effects of the Mediterranean climate. P. sylvestris can be co-dominant in the canopy, except in the far south and on the Mediterranean islands.

Vicariant forms of the black and Scots pines are recognised in different localities. In Spain, for example, P. nigra ssp. salzmannii forms stands with so-called P. sylvestris ssp. nevadensis, and P. sylvestris var. iberica. On Corsica, P. nigra ssp. laricio is a pioneer species occupying open ground or clear-felled areas within the zone of beech and fir, but it also dominates on rocky, south-facing slopes, which are too dry for beech and fir to compete black pine. In such sites, black pine can attain a magnificent height in closed canopy, with shorter Betula pendula and Ilex aquifolium individuals in the understory, and a field layer with Avenella flexuosa, Brachypodium pinnatum, Sanicula europaea, Galium rotundifolium, Veronica officinalis and endemic species such as Helleborus lividus, Crocus corsicus, Carlina macrocephala, Galium corsicum and Stachys corsica. More open stands can have a denser understory of Synonym of Juniperus communis subsp. Nana, Genista lobelii and Berberis aetnensis.

Indicators of quality:

·     Maintenance of natural woodland structure and distinctive

·     Absence of signs of exploitation by logging and grazing which leads to to the increase of grasses cover

·     No fragmentation of cover by quarrying or gravel extraction.

·    Structural diversity/ complexity with (semi)natural age structure or the existence of different vegetation layers

·    Presence of old trees and a variety of dead wood (lying or standing) and of the associated flora, fauna and fungi

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The overall assessment of this habitat is based on data from the recent past (last 50 years). Based on the geographical stability, large area of occupancy, and no signs of extended degradation, the overall assessment is Least Concern (LC). There is neither sufficient data about historical trends, nor sufficient information to estimate future trends, and data on habitat quality trends are very limited, so this assessment may change in the future under the light of new information and data.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest and Plantation management & use
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
  • Human intrusions and disturbances
    • Outdoor sports and leisure activities, recreational activities
  • Geological events, natural catastrophes
    • Fire (natural)
  • Climate change
    • Droughts and less precipitations
    • Changes in biotic conditions

Habitat restoration potential

The dominant Pinus species show a pioneer behaviour, but the other species of flora and fauna of the habitat type require longer periods without disturbances, and the presence of an adequate network of mature & ancient forests that may serve as gene-pool. Design of an adequate network of reserves may significantly improve the recovery of typical species and ecological functions of the habitat type.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Stable Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The management of this habitat has been traditionally addressed towards wood production and watersheds protection. Application of Habitat Directive, with inclusion of 9530 type has changed this tendency in some places. Consideration of natural dynamics, with diversified age structure, and presence of deadwood is needed (see quality indicators) in the management of the habitat type. Some of the relict subtypes merit special wildfire protection measures.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
    • Adapt forest management
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
France mainland Present 297 Stable Stable
Corsica Present 297 Stable Stable
Italy mainland Present 409 Stable Stable
Sicily Present 409 Stable Stable
Portugal mainland Present 1 Stable Stable
Spain mainland Present 4317 Stable Stable
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 1067000 669 5000
EU28+ 669 5000
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Juniperus communis
Conifers Pinus nigra
Flowering Plants Amelanchier ovalis
Flowering Plants Avenella flexuosa
Flowering Plants Berberis aetnensis
Flowering Plants Berberis vulgaris
Flowering Plants Betula pendula
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum
Flowering Plants Buxus sempervirens
Flowering Plants Carlina macrocephala
Flowering Plants Crocus corsicus
Flowering Plants Galium corsicum
Flowering Plants Genista lobelii
Flowering Plants Helleborus lividus
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Flowering Plants Sanicula europaea
Flowering Plants Stachys corsica
Flowering Plants Veronica officinalis
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Juniperus communis Conifers
Pinus nigra Conifers
Amelanchier ovalis Flowering Plants
Avenella flexuosa Flowering Plants
Berberis aetnensis Flowering Plants
Berberis vulgaris Flowering Plants
Betula pendula Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants
Buxus sempervirens Flowering Plants
Carlina macrocephala Flowering Plants
Crocus corsicus Flowering Plants
Galium corsicum Flowering Plants
Genista lobelii Flowering Plants
Helleborus lividus Flowering Plants
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Sanicula europaea Flowering Plants
Stachys corsica Flowering Plants
Veronica officinalis Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G3.5 Pinus nigra woodland overlap
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G3.4 Pinus sylvestris woodland south of the taiga overlap
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100