Red List habitat classification > RLG - Forests > RLG3.4d Mediterranean montane Cedrus woodland

Mediterranean montane Cedrus woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLG3.4d
Threat status
Europe Vulnerable
EU Vulnerable
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)


To describe the habitat, we refer at first to the native Cedrus species in the Mediterranean: Cedrus atlantica  and Cedrus libani. The latter species includes two subspecies: libani and brevifolia. Cedrus atlantica is distributed in Morocco (Rif, Middle Atlas and north-east of the High Atlas) and Algeria (Aurés, Belezma, Hodna, Djbel Babor, Djurdjura, Blida and Ouarsenis). Cedrus libani subsp. libani is distributed in Lebanon, Syria and Asiatic Turkey. In Turkey and especially on the Taurus Mountains it forms extensive forests, while in the other two countries it is represented by small populations.

Within the geographical scope of the Red List project only the woodlands with Cedrus libani subsp. brevifolia are of relevance. Cedrus libani subsp. brevifolia is endemic to Cyprus, growing in a restricted area of the Paphos forest. It is found in the meso-Mediterranean to the mid supra-Mediterranean zone (altitude 900–1.400 m a.s.l.) in areas with sub-humid climate. It forms pure forests or mixed ones with Pinus brutia or Quercus alnifolia and it grows mainly on serpentine (diabase) substrates and on shallow to deep soils.

Indicators of quality:

  • No forest exploitations
  • Natural composition of canopy, canopy of woodland species not fragmented and competitive dominance of Cedrus species against other tree species;
  • Structural diversity/ complexity with (semi)natural age structure or completeness of layers
  • Typical flora and fauna composition of the region
  • Presence of old aged trees with spreading crown, large height and basal area and a variety of dead wood (lying or standing) and the associated flora, fauna and fungi
  • Presence of natural disturbance such as treefall openings with natural regeneration
  • Survival of larger stands of forest without anthropogenic fragmentation and isolation (to support fauna which need large undisturbed forests)
  • Absence of non-native species in all layers (flora & fauna)
  • No signs of disturbance (e.g. grazing, unregulated logging) or regressive succession;
  • No man-induced very high population levels of ungulates

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat is assessed as Vulnerable (VU) for the EU28 (and EU28+) based on the criteria B1, B2 and B3, due to the very few locations where the habitat is present, making it vulnerable to stochastic events, especially fire. For all other criteria for which data are available the habitat is assessed as Least Concern.
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable B1, B2, B3
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable B1, B2, B3

Confidence in the assessment

Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Removal of forest undergrowth
    • Grazing in forests/ woodland
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Discontinuous urbanisation
  • Geological events, natural catastrophes
    • Fire (natural)
  • Climate change
    • Temperature changes (e.g. rise of temperature & extremes)
    • Droughts and less precipitations

Habitat restoration potential

As far as known there is no scientific documentation on the recovery of the Cedrus brevifolia forests in Cyprus. However it should be mentioned that Cedrus libani subsp. brevifolia has been used the previous years by the Forestry Depertment for reforestation efforts implemented at the forests of Troodos, Pafos and Adelfoi.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Stable
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Increasing No occurrence
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The management measures applied at the Cedrus libani subsp. brevifolia forests within the Natura 2000 site "Koilada ton Kedron-Kampos" is sufficient and effective for their conservation at Favorable status.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Other forestry-related measures
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
    • Adapt forest management


For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Cyprus Present 2.9 Stable Stable
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 200 2 2.9 Only in Cyprus
EU28+ 2 2.9 More widespread outside the EU28+
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

Not available

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100