Red List habitat classification > RLG - Forests > RLG3.6 Mediterranean and Balkan subalpine Pinus heldreichii-Pinus peuce woodland

Mediterranean and Balkan subalpine Pinus heldreichii-Pinus peuce woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLG3.6
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Near Threatened
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat comprises timberline coniferous woodland in southern Italy, the southern Balkans and Greece, dominated by the two pine species Pinus peuce and P. heldreichii, trees which survive better in the summer-drought conditions of southern Europe than Picea abies or Fagus sylvatica, which extend as dominants to the timberline further north. Both these pines are considered to be Tertiary relict species, but these woodlands are not relicts, as pines survived glaciations at lower altitude. P. peuce can be found on non-carbonate bedrock, whereas P. heldreichii occurs on carbonate deposits. P. peuce can be found above altitudes of 1500 m and forms canopies of even 30-40 m tall, often mixed with Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica or Abies borisii-regis, but it also extends to lower altitudes and can dominate on sites that were originally occupied by Fagus sylvatica and deforested.

The soil in the stands is poor in nutrients with a lot of bedrock on the surface, which suggests that the stands of P. peuce can be of secondary origin. Pinus heldreichii grows at altitudes above 1000m and is a heliophilous tree, surviving better then P. peuce in dry conditions, growing more slowly and forming canopies up to 20-30m high. Its stands are often monodominant, especially on rocky, sunny slopes, but it can occur mixed with P. sylvestris or P. nigra, on Monte Pollino (Italy) also with Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica. The populations of both endemic pine trees are occur scattered and fragmented, due to the specific soil conditions.

Indicators of good quality:

  • Overwhelming dominance of the pines
  • Species richness
  • Absence of logging and intensive grazing and consequent erosion
  • Absence of intensive destructive fires

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

Although the habitat is characterized by a wide range (EOO) and only a small decline of the area has been reported over the last 50 years, the high fragmentation and restricted distribution of the populations (AOO close to 50), accompanied by a continuing degradation in part of the current distribution, makes the habitat qualify as Near Threatened for the European Union under criterion B2. As the habitat is more widespread outside the EU in Balkan countries, the final category for EU28+ is Least Concern.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Near Threatened B2
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest replanting
    • Forestry clearance
    • Grazing in forests/ woodland
  • Natural System modifications
    • Burning down
  • Natural biotic and abiotic processes (without catastrophes)
    • Species composition change (succession)

Habitat restoration potential

In general the habitat has a significant capacity of recovering after damage. Only a combination of factors such as high intensity fire and grazing may prevent this.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Several locations of the habitat are already within protected areas. As both of the characteristic species are minor timber trees, natural stands are less intensively exploited than in the past.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
    • Adapt forest management

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bulgaria Present 65 Decreasing Decreasing
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 286 Increasing Stable
Italy mainland Present 3.5 Stable Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Albania Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 65 Decreasing Decreasing
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Present 20 Stable Increasing
Montenegro Present 189 Unknown Decreasing
Serbia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Kosovo Present 3.8 Decreasing Decreasing

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 147300 77 445
EU28+ 135 722 Data from Albania, Kosovo and Serbia are still missing (for EOO and AOO). Kosovo habitat area has been included in Current estimated Total Area
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Abies alba
Conifers Abies borisii-regis
Conifers Juniperus communis
Conifers Juniperus hemisphaerica
Conifers Picea abies
Conifers Pinus heldreichii
Conifers Pinus peuce
Ferns Polystichum lonchitis
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Anemone nemorosa
Flowering Plants Avenella flexuosa
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis arundinacea
Flowering Plants Calamintha grandiflora
Flowering Plants Cotoneaster nebrodensis
Flowering Plants Daphne mezereum
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Festuca penzesii
Flowering Plants Fragaria vesca
Flowering Plants Galium rotundifolium
Flowering Plants Gentiana asclepiadea
Flowering Plants Geranium sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Homogyne alpina
Flowering Plants Luzula luzuloides
Flowering Plants Luzula sylvatica
Flowering Plants Mycelis muralis
Flowering Plants Orthilia secunda
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Rosa pendulina
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Sorbus graeca
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Veratrum album
Flowering Plants Veronica chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Veronica officinalis
Flowering Plants Viola reichenbachiana
Flowering Plants Wulfenia carinthiaca
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Abies alba Conifers
Abies borisii-regis Conifers
Juniperus communis Conifers
Juniperus hemisphaerica Conifers
Picea abies Conifers
Pinus heldreichii Conifers
Pinus peuce Conifers
Polystichum lonchitis Ferns
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Anemone nemorosa Flowering Plants
Avenella flexuosa Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis arundinacea Flowering Plants
Calamintha grandiflora Flowering Plants
Cotoneaster nebrodensis Flowering Plants
Daphne mezereum Flowering Plants
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Festuca penzesii Flowering Plants
Fragaria vesca Flowering Plants
Galium rotundifolium Flowering Plants
Gentiana asclepiadea Flowering Plants
Geranium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Homogyne alpina Flowering Plants
Luzula luzuloides Flowering Plants
Luzula sylvatica Flowering Plants
Mycelis muralis Flowering Plants
Orthilia secunda Flowering Plants
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Rosa pendulina Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Sorbus graeca Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Veratrum album Flowering Plants
Veronica chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Veronica officinalis Flowering Plants
Viola reichenbachiana Flowering Plants
Wulfenia carinthiaca Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean Pinus woodland same
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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