Red List habitat classification > RLG - Forests > RLG3.Da Pinus mire woodland

Pinus mire woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLG3.Da
Threat status
Europe Data Deficient
EU Vulnerable
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)


These are coniferous woodlands of shallow to deep peats and peaty mineral soils sustained by high ground water in gentle depressions on plains, on river terraces and at the margins of treeless mires throughout the boreal and more locally in the nemoral zones. The Pinus mire woodland can develop on a clearly ombrotrophic active bog surface on deep peat, but it can also be minerotrophic, located on shallower peaty soils at mire margins, though it could be more extensive on the mire surface. Tree cover can be sparse with low-growing individuals when the associated flora is very similar to the open mire surface, while under more closed canopies, shade-tolerant species prevail. An uneven age structure among the trees is characteristic of natural sites. Pinus species are the canopy dominant, mostly Pinus sylvestris but there are distinct subtypes with Pinus mugo s.l. (including Pinus uncinata ssp. uliginosa = P. rotundata, Pinus x rhaetica, Pinus mugo s.str., Pinus x ascendens). Pinus growth forms vary from upright tree form to more compact low-growth forms. Picea abies ssp. abies and ssp. obovata, Betula pubescens and Salix spp. are common associates. The field layer has such dwarf shrubs as Vaccinium myrtillus, V. uliginosum, V. oxycoccos, V. vitis-idaea, Ledum palustre, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Rubus chamaemorus with Eriophorum vaginatum, Carex globularis and peat-forming Sphagna like S. angustifolium, S. fuscum and S. magellanicum with big pleurocarpous mosses on drier hummocks. Trickles of moving water can sustain more minerotrophic species such as Menyanthes trifoliata, Equisetum fluviatile, E. palustre and Comarum palustre.

Indicators of quality:

• No forest exploitation.

• Intact natural mire hydrology.

• Natural composition of canopy with dominant Pinus species.

• Structural diversity/complexity with (semi)natural age structure or completeness of layers.

• Presence of old trees and a variety of dead wood (lying or standing) and the associated flora, fauna and fungi.

• Long historical continuity (ancient woodland) with high species diversity.

• Absence of non-native species in all layers (flora and fauna).

• No signs of eutrophication or pollution

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat is assessed as Vulnerable under criterion A1 in the EU 28, as there has been a 35% reduction in quantity over the past 50 years. However, the area of the habitat is currently stable, since drainage of new peatland sites for forestry is not practiced any more in Northern Europe. The habitat quality continues to decline in most EU 28 countries. Trend data on reduction in quantity were missing from Austria, Latvia, Norway and Serbia. Trend data on reduction in quality was missing from Austria, Estonia, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Serbia and Slovakia. Six of the countries (including Norway) reported their data of this type combined with the type G3.Db Picea mire woodland. This habitat type is assessed as Data Deficient in the EU 28+ region since a relatively large part of its area may lie within Norway but precise values are unknown due to the combination of this habitat type with type G3. Db Picea mire woodland.
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable A1
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Data Deficient -

Confidence in the assessment

Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forestry clearance
    • Removal of dead and dying trees
    • Use of fertilizers (forestry)
    • Forestry activities not referred to above
  • Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
    • Peat extraction
  • Pollution
    • Nitrogen-input
  • Natural System modifications
    • Human induced changes in hydraulic conditions
    • Other human induced changes in hydraulic conditions
  • Climate change
    • Temperature changes (e.g. rise of temperature & extremes)
    • Habitat shifting and alteration

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat has a potential to recover, but recovery will be very slow. It always requires restoration of hydrological conditions.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The most common approaches currently involve establishing protected areas/sites, establishing wilderness areas, restoring/improving habitats, usually by restoring hydrological conditions and adapting forest management. Some of the additional actions needed include further optimizing the use of funds for conservation (what kind of areas are chosen for conservation and where), further improving methods for conservation/nature management in managed forests (e.g. regarding deadwood), adptation of spatial planning (roads, etc.), and bringing climate change under control.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
    • Adapt forest management
  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring/Improving the hydrological regime
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Establishing wilderness areas/allowing succession


For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Czech Republic Present 55 Decreasing Decreasing
Finland mainland Present 17,100 Decreasing Decreasing
Aland Islands Present 17,100 Decreasing Decreasing
Germany Present 110 Decreasing Decreasing
Italy mainland Present Oct-16 Decreasing Stable
Estonia Present 434 Unknown Decreasing
Lithuania Present 465-470 Decreasing Increasing
Latvia Present 39 Decreasing Decreasing
Austria Present 0-10 Decreasing Unknown
Romania Present 0-50 Decreasing Decreasing
United Kingdom Present 10 Decreasing Stable
Bulgaria Present 0.7 Decreasing Decreasing
France mainland Present 0-80 Decreasing Increasing
Corsica Uncertain 0-80 Decreasing Increasing
Poland Present 250 Decreasing Decreasing
Sardinia Uncertain Oct-16 Decreasing Stable
Sicily Uncertain Oct-16 Decreasing Stable
Slovakia Present 0-30 Unknown Decreasing
Slovenia Present 0-11 Decreasing Stable
Sweden Present 16,379 Decreasing Increasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Switzerland Present 17 Decreasing Decreasing
Norway Mainland Present 0-2,670 Unknown Decreasing
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 0.2 Decreasing Stable
Serbia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 >50,000 >50 > 34,859 The area is without countries which gave data for G3.D/E only
EU28+ >50 > 34,876 The area is without Norway and other countries which gave data for G3.D/E only
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

Not available

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100