Temperate high-mountain base-rich scree
|Red List habitat type||code RLH2.4|
|Source||European Red List habitat factsheet|
|European Red List of habitats reports|
|European Red List of habitats (Excel table)|
Calcareous and calcschist screes of high altitudes (mainly over 1000 m alt.) and cool sites in mountain ranges of the nemoral zone of Europe, including the Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathians, central and eastern parts of Balkan Peninsula, Apennines, etc. Scree habitat consists of rock fragments with different forms and sizes covering the frost-shattered summits of mountains or accumulating on slopes below calcareous cliffs. Calcareous and calcschist screes consist of base-rich rocks including limestone, dolomites, calcareous-schists, and marbles.
The screes are colonised by a set of mostly perennial species. The vegetation consists of assemblages of calcicole and basiphilous species, the composition of which depends on altitude and geographical ranges. Geographical isolation and limited size of high-altitudinal screes are explanations for the high level of specification found in the flora of calcareous screes, resulting in many relic and local endemic species. Also many vegetation alliances have limited ranges on the slopes of European mountains, for example in the Carpathians (Papverion tatrtici and Papavero-Thymion pulcherrimi), the Dinarides (Bunion alpini and Saxifragion prenjae), the Pirin Mountain in Bulgaria (Veronico-Papaverion degenii), the Pyrenees (Iberidion spathulatae, Iberido apertae-Linarion propinquae, Saxifragion praetemirsae Androsacion ciliatae), and the Apennines (Linario-Festucion dimorphae, Thlaspion stylosi). Some vegetation alliances, like the Thlaspion rotundifolii and Drabion hoppeanae (on slates), are more widespread in the Alps and Carpathians. The vegetation of high-mountain and subalpine, relatively humid, fine limestone and marl screes belongs to the alliance Petasition paradoxi. Here many fern species (Polystichum lonchitis, Dryopteris submontana, D. villarii, Asplenium fissum) are found as well as large number of calcicolous mosses.
Indicators of quality:
- Occurrence of natural erosion processes.
- High species richness of the cliffs.
- Presence of rare, relict or endemic species.
- Absence of human activities, including grazing.
- Absence of alien species.
Synthesis of Red List assessment
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
Confidence in the assessment
Pressures and threats
- Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
- Mining and quarrying
- Human intrusions and disturbances
- Sport and leisure structures
- Natural biotic and abiotic processes (without catastrophes)
- Biocenotic evolution, succession
- Climate change
- Changes in abiotic conditions
Habitat restoration potential
Trends in extent
Average current trend in quantity
Trends in quality
Average current trend in quality
Conservation and management needs
List of conservation and management needs
- Measures related to spatial planning
- Establish protected areas/sites
- Legal protection of habitats and species
- Manage landscape features
Geographic occurrence and trends
|EU28||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
|EU28 +||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
|Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)||Present||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||3||Stable||Stable|
Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area
|Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2)||Area of Occupancy (AOO)||Current estimated Total Area||Comment|
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).
Relation to other habitat types mentioned in legal instruments
Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)Not available
|Classification||Code||Habitat type name||Relationship type|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711||H2.4||Temperate-montane calcareous and ultra-basic screes||same|