Macaronesian inland cliff
|Red List habitat type||code RLH3.3|
|Source||European Red List habitat factsheet|
|European Red List of habitats reports|
|European Red List of habitats (Excel table)|
Perennial vegetation of rock walls not under the influence of sodium chloride of maritime origin. The habitat includes an enormous diversity of plant communities that, in turn, include several hundreds of taxa endemic to Macaronesia. The main large groups, that we consider as subtypes within H3.3, are: i) plant communities dominated by succulent rosetted chamaephytic crassulaceae (Aeonium, Aichryson, Greenovia and Monanthes) of rock surface or crevices, endemic to the Canaries and Madeira ( Greenovio-Aeonietea vegetation class). Although a few taxa reach the Azores archipelago (e.g. Aichryson), this vegetation type is not recognized there; ii) communities of shady, humid, earthy, rock wall surfaces dominated by ferns and mosses (Anomodonto-Polypodietea vegetation class); iii) plant communities strictly of rock wall crevices directly exposed to rainfall, made up of a great diversity of habitat-specialists, both pteridophytes and vascular plants (Asplenietea trichomanis vegetation class); iv) semi-nitrogen prone vegetation of rock wall crevices, including artificial old walls and buildings, dominated by hemi-criptophytes and chamaephytes (Parietarietea judaicae). The later, in spite of cosmopolitan distribution includes some endemic elements in Macaronesia. The subtypes thus considered are:
1. Succulent rosette crassulaceae vegetation of the Canaries and Madeira. (i) This subtype has an enormous diversity and endemicity (see flora). Alliances included are Soncho acaulis-Aeonion (all canarian archipelago); Greenovion aureae (western Canaries); Aichryso monanthi-Monanthion laxiflorae (canarian and madeiran archipelagos, one taxon (Aichryson villosum) reaches the Azores but it belongs to subtype #2 there; Sinapidendro-Aeonion glutinosi (madeirean only).
2. Brio-pteridophytic shady earthy rock wall, seldom epiphytic communities of Canaries, Madeira and Azores. (ii) This subtype shares some flora with exclusively epiphytic communities (Hymenophylion thumbrigensis) which is not considered here. Canaries, Madeira and Azores. The alliances included are: Barthamio-Polypodion, Sellaginelo-Annogramion leptophyllae and Thelypterido-Woodwardion of wet walls with large ferns.
3. Exposed rock wall crevices vegetation of the Canaries and Madeira. (iii) One alliance only: Cheilanthion pulchellae of xerophytic and termophyllous mafic rock crevices.
4. Semi nitrogen-prone wall vegetation. (iv) Parietario-Galion, Cymbalario-Asplenion and Asplenion maritimi alliances are present. All archipelagos.
Indicators of good quality:
Physiognomical integrity and presence of local/regional bioindicator sets should be maximal. Disturbance regimes, mostly soil/rock removal or removal of protective arboreal vegetation, for shade, in the case of subtype #2 are indicative of collapse/loss of ecological quality. Nitrogen-prone rock vegetation, i.e subtype #4 tends to dominate if disturbance increases. Sometimes type F6.8a ( macaronesian halo-nitrophyllous tender- leaf shrubs) can also tend to invade the habitat under disturbance.
Synthesis of Red List assessment
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
Confidence in the assessment
Pressures and threats
- Transportation and service corridors
- Roads, motorways
- Bridge, viaduct
- Human intrusions and disturbances
- Mountaineering & rock climbing
- Trampling, overuse
Habitat restoration potential
Trends in extent
Average current trend in quantity
Trends in quality
Average current trend in quality
Conservation and management needs
List of conservation and management needs
- Measures related to spatial planning
- Establish protected areas/sites
- Legal protection of habitats and species
- Manage landscape features
- Measures related to urban areas, industry, energy and transport
- Specific management of traffic and energy transport systems
Geographic occurrence and trends
|EU28||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
|EU28 +||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area
|Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2)||Area of Occupancy (AOO)||Current estimated Total Area||Comment|
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).