Red List habitat classification > RL - Marine habitats > RLBAL - Baltic > BAL25 Unvegetated Baltic infralittoral mixed sediment (hard and soft) with sparse or no macrofaunal community

Unvegetated Baltic infralittoral mixed sediment (hard and soft) with sparse or no macrofaunal community

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code BAL25
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)


This benthic Baltic Sea habitat occurs in the photic zone with a mix of more than 10%, but less than 90% coverage of either hard and soft substrata according to the HELCOM HUB classification. Typical examples include singular rocks or boulders/stones extending above the soft substrata as well as soft substrata aggregation between abundant rocks and stones/boulders. The amount of soft substrata is affected by energy, both in the lateral and horizontal dimension, leading to a typically continuous small-scale variation in substrate composition. Sessile/semi-sessile macroscopic epibenthic fauna and flora is present where there is a sparse macrofaunal community (less than 10% coverage). In these situations microphytobenthic organisms and grazing snails (e.g. Hydrobiidae, Theodoxus, Bithynia, Radix) dominate constituting 50% in biomass or volume. Elsewhere there may be no macrovegetation present and neither macroepifauna or macro infauna. 

Indicators of quality:

Both biotic and abiotic indicators have been used to describe marine habitat quality. These include: the presence of characteristic species as well as those which are sensitive to the pressures the habitat may face; water quality parameters; levels of exposure to particular pressure, and more integrated indices which describe habitat structure and function, such as trophic index, or successional stages of development in habitats that have a natural cycle of change over time.

There are no commonly agreed indicators of quality for this habitat, although particular parameters may have been set in certain situations e.g. protected features within Natura 2000 sites, where reference values have been determined and applied on a location-specific basis.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

This habitat is known to have a widespread distribution in the Baltic Sea.The overall assessment for this EUNIS level 4 habitat has been based on the HELCOM (2013) assessments for the associated HELCOM HUB biotopes. Draft assessments were derived using a weighted approach whereby the HELCOM assessment outcomes were assigned a score. This was averaged across the relevant biotopes. The outcomes were reviewed by Baltic experts to reach a final conclusion. HELCOM (2013) assessed three relevant Baltic biotopes (AA.M2W, AA.M2T and AA.M4U) as Least Concern (A1). Current expert opinion is that because of the widespread distribution of this habitat in the Baltic Sea and no significant decline over the last 50 years it can be assessed as Least Concern for both the EU 28 and EU 28+.
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • No threats or pressures
    • No threats or pressures

Habitat restoration potential


Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Stable
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Stable Stable
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

No specific conservation and management measures have been identified for this habitat type.

List of conservation and management needs

  • No measures
    • No measure known / impossible to carry out specific measures


For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

Seas Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Baltic Proper Present Unknown Stable Stable
Belt Sea
Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Riga
The Sound

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 >50,000 Unknown Unknown This habitat is present in all the Baltic sub-basins.
EU28+ Unknown Unknown This habitat is present in all the Baltic sub-basins
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

Not available

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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