Macaronesian communities of upper eulittoral rock
|Red List habitat type||code NEAA1.13|
|Source||European Red List habitat factsheet|
|European Red List of habitats reports|
|European Red List of habitats (Excel table)|
This intertidal habitat occurs on rocky shores of bedrock and boulders in areas exposed to wave action during high tides as well as to the swell of large storms. It includes facies characterised by discontinuous belts of the red algae Bangia atropurpurea and Porphyra spp.. The associated fauna include littorinids (Littorina striata, Malaraphe neritoides and Nodilittorina punctata), small crustaceans such as hermit crabs (Dardanus and Pagurus spp.), acorn barnacle (Chthamallus stellatus) and the isopod Ligia itálica. In very exposed areas, the Sally Lightfoot crab (Grapsus adscensionis) or the Runner crab (Pachygrapsus marmoratus) are quite conspicuous.
It has been recorded from both the Azores (San Miguel) and the Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Gomera, and La Palma), mainly on northern coasts, and is likely to occur around other Macaronesian islands.
Indicators of Quality:
Both biotic and abiotic indicators have been used to describe marine habitat quality. These include: the presence of characteristic species as well as those which are sensitive to the pressures the habitat may face; water quality parameters; levels of exposure to particular pressure, and more integrated indices which describe habitat structure and function, such as trophic index, or successional stages of development in habitats that have a natural cycle of change over time.
There are no commonly agreed indicators of quality for this habitat, although particular parameters may have been set in certain situations e.g. protected features within Natura 2000 sites, where reference values have been determined and applied on a location-specific basis. Indicators which have been developed for the assessment of ecological quality of coastal water bodies for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) that are relevant to this habitat include a consideration of macroalgae species richness, proportions of different taxa of algae present, and the abundance and coverage of the rocky surfaces by typical species.
Synthesis of Red List assessment
This habitat has large EOO and therefore qualifies as Least Concern under criterion B1. The AOO suggests it could be Endangered under criterion B2 however, given the lack of information on trends in quantity and quality, and the fact that the overall distribution is unknown, expert opinion is this habitat should be considered Data Deficient.
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
Confidence in the assessment
Pressures and threats
- Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
- Urbanised areas, human habitation
- Pollution to surface waters (limnic, terrestrial, marine & brackish)
- Nutrient enrichment (N, P, organic matter)
- Marine water pollution
- Invasive, other problematic species and genes
- Invasive non-native species
Habitat restoration potential
Trends in extent
Average current trend in quantity
Trends in quality
Average current trend in quality
Conservation and management needs
List of conservation and management needs
- Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
- Restoring/Improving water quality
- Measures related to spatial planning
- Other marine-related measures
- Establish protected areas/sites
- Measures related to urban areas, industry, energy and transport
- Urban and industrial waste management
- Managing marine traffic
Geographic occurrence and trends
|Seas||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area
|Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2)||Area of Occupancy (AOO)||Current estimated Total Area||Comment|
|EU28||268,431||>16||Unknown||Based on a limited data set. AOO is known to be an underestimate.|
|EU28+||>16||Unknown||Based on a limited data set. AOO is known to be an underestimate.|
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).
|Species scientific name||English common name||Species group|
Relation to other habitat types mentioned in legal instruments
|Legal text||Annex||Name in legal text||Code in legal text||
|Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora - consolidated version 01/01/2007||Annex I: natural habitat types of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation||Reefs||1170||Overlap||http://ec.europa.eu/environm...rective/index_en.htm|