Red List habitat classification > RL - Marine habitats > RLNEA - Atlantic > NEAA3.35 Faunal communities on low energy marine Atlantic infralittoral rock

Faunal communities on low energy marine Atlantic infralittoral rock

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code NEAA3.35
Threat status
Europe Data Deficient
EU Data Deficient
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)


This habitat is found in tide-sheltered conditions, supporting silty communities with Laminaria hyperborea and/or Saccharina latissima. It is distinguished by the presence of an abundance of turf-forming species, often animal-dominated, but can sometimes be characterised by algal turf  with species such as Codium elisabethae and Halopteris filicina and coralline crusts.

Indicators of quality:

Both biotic and abiotic indicators have been used to describe marine habitat quality. These include: the presence of characteristic species as well as those which are sensitive to the pressures the habitat may face; water quality parameters; levels of exposure to particular pressure, and more integrated indices which describe habitat structure and function, such as trophic index, or successional stages of development in habitats that have a natural cycle of change over time.

There are no commonly agreed indicators of quality for this habitat, although particular parameters may have been set in certain situations e.g. protected features within Natura 2000 sites, where reference values have been determined and applied on a location-specific basis.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

Detailed information on the abundance and extent of this habitat is lacking. Data on the quantity and quality of this habitat, including any historical or recent, trends across the region are unknown. For the purposes of Red List assessment this habitat is therefore considered to be Data Deficient for both the EU 28 and EU 28+.
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Data Deficient -
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Data Deficient -

Confidence in the assessment

Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Biological resource use other than agriculture & forestry
    • Fishing and harvesting aquatic resources
    • Professional active fishing
  • Pollution
    • Pollution to surface waters (limnic, terrestrial, marine & brackish)
    • Marine water pollution
  • Natural System modifications
    • Human induced changes in hydraulic conditions
    • Modification of hydrographic functioning, general
    • Modification of water flow (tidal & marine currents)
    • Wave exposure changes
  • Climate change
    • Changes in abiotic conditions
    • Wave exposure changes

Habitat restoration potential


Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Unknown Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Unknown Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Management of marine activities will be important to control factors leading to the decline of quantity and quality of this habitat. Marine Protected Areas and integrated coastal zone management which can include spatial planning measures and limits on land claim and other activities that alter the tidal regime are examples of beneficial measures. Others are the regulation of the construction of hard coastal defence structures and the maintenance of water quality improvement programmes to reduce the risk of chemical contamination, as well as measures to reduce the impact of climate change and sea level rise.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring/Improving water quality
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Other marine-related measures
    • Establish protected areas/sites


For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

Seas Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Celtic Seas
Greater North Sea

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 Unknown Unknown Unknown There is insufficient information for accurate calculation of EOO and AOO.
EU28+ Unknown Unknown There is insufficient information for accurate calculation of EOO and AOO.
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Algae Codium elisabethae
Algae Halopteris filicina
Algae Laminaria hyperborea
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Codium elisabethae Algae
Halopteris filicina Algae
Laminaria hyperborea Algae

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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