Red List habitat classification > RL - Marine habitats > RLNEA - Atlantic > NEAA4.13 Mixed faunal turf communities on high energy Atlantic upper circalittoral rock

Mixed faunal turf communities on high energy Atlantic upper circalittoral rock

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code NEAA4.13
Threat status
Europe Data Deficient
EU Data Deficient
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat type occurs on wave-exposed circalittoral bedrock and boulders, sometimes on vertical or steep slopes, subject to tidal streams ranging from strong (3-6 kn) to moderately strong (1-3 kn). The rocky outcrops may be surrounded by coarse sediment, for example shelly gravel or muddy gravel. The majority of the organisms are filter feeders, depending on suspended material in the water column and providing important water quality regulation and nutrient cycling services. Amongst others, sponges, bryozoans, hydroids, ascidians and sea-anemones, whose functional roles are of high importance, form these communities. Slow-growing complex biogenic structures created by hydroids, bryozoans and sponges modify the flow of currents, consolidate sediments and provide a three-dimensional habitat to a multitude of associated species.

Indicators of quality:

Both biotic and abiotic indicators have been used to describe marine habitat quality. These include: the presence of characteristic species as well as those which are sensitive to the pressures the habitat may face; water quality parameters; levels of exposure to particular pressure, and more integrated indices which describe habitat structure and function, such as trophic index, or successional stages of development in habitats that have a natural cycle of change over time.

There are no commonly agreed indicators of quality for this habitat, although particular parameters may have been set in certain situations e.g. protected features within Natura 2000 sites, where reference values have been determined and applied on a location-specific basis.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

Detailed information on the abundance and extent of this habitat is lacking. It is known to be widespread (e.g. present in the Azores, Atlantic coast of France, the UK and Sweden), exceeding thresholds of EOO and AOO for Red Listing, but there is insufficient information to provide an overall estimate of historical, recent and possible future trends in quantity and quality.
This habitat has a large EOO and AOO, and therefore qualifies as Least Concern under criterion B. However the habitat is assessed as Data Deficient both at the EU 28 and EU 28+ levels given the lack of information on its trends in quantity and quality and the fact that its overall distribution is unknown.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Data Deficient
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Data Deficient

Confidence in the assessment

low
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Biological resource use other than agriculture & forestry
    • Marine and Freshwater Aquaculture
    • Fishing and harvesting aquatic resources
    • Professional passive fishing
    • Potting
    • Professional active fishing
    • Benthic or demersal trawling
    • Benthic dredging
  • Pollution
    • Pollution to surface waters (limnic, terrestrial, marine & brackish)
    • Nutrient enrichment (N, P, organic matter)
  • Natural System modifications
    • Siltation rate changes, dumping, depositing of dredged deposits

Habitat restoration potential

Unknown

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Unknown Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Unknown Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

No conservation measures that specifically target this habitat have been identified, however it is present within some Marine Protected Areas and may therefore be protected through measures that limit potentially damaging activities e.g. by zoning fishing activities, regulation of discharges to the marine environment and setting limits of activities such as dredging which increase turbidity.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to marine habitats
    • Other marine-related measures
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
  • Measures related to hunting, taking and fishing and species management
    • Regulation/Management of fishery in marine and brackish systems

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

Seas Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Celtic Seas
Kattegat
Greater North Sea
Macaronesia

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 680,908 564 Unknown EOO and AOO have been calculated on the available data. Although this data set is known to be incomplete the figures exceed the thresholds for threatened status.
EU28+ >564 Unknown EOO and AOO have been calculated on the available data. Although this data set is known to be incomplete the figures exceed the thresholds for threatened status.
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Invertebrates Actinothoe sphyrodeta
Invertebrates Alcyonidium diaphanum
Invertebrates Alcyonium digitatum
Invertebrates Asterias rubens
Invertebrates Balanus crenatus
Invertebrates Bugula flabellata
Invertebrates Bugula plumosa
Invertebrates Cancer pagurus
Invertebrates Caryophyllia smithii
Invertebrates Clavelina lepadiformis
Invertebrates Corynactis viridis
Invertebrates Dysidea fragilis
Invertebrates Echinus esculentus
Invertebrates Esperiopsis fucorum
Invertebrates Flustra foliacea
Invertebrates Hemimycale columella
Invertebrates Necora puber
Invertebrates Nemertesia antennina
Invertebrates Nemertesia ramosa
Invertebrates Pachymatisma johnstonia
Invertebrates Pomatoceros triqueter
Invertebrates Raspailia ramosa
Invertebrates Sagartia elegans
Invertebrates Urticina felina
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Actinothoe sphyrodeta Invertebrates
Alcyonidium diaphanum Invertebrates
Alcyonium digitatum Invertebrates
Asterias rubens Invertebrates
Balanus crenatus Invertebrates
Bugula flabellata Invertebrates
Bugula plumosa Invertebrates
Cancer pagurus Invertebrates
Caryophyllia smithii Invertebrates
Clavelina lepadiformis Invertebrates
Corynactis viridis Invertebrates
Dysidea fragilis Invertebrates
Echinus esculentus Invertebrates
Esperiopsis fucorum Invertebrates
Flustra foliacea Invertebrates
Hemimycale columella Invertebrates
Necora puber Invertebrates
Nemertesia antennina Invertebrates
Nemertesia ramosa Invertebrates
Pachymatisma johnstonia Invertebrates
Pomatoceros triqueter Invertebrates
Raspailia ramosa Invertebrates
Sagartia elegans Invertebrates
Urticina felina Invertebrates

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100