Red List habitat classification > RL - Marine habitats > RLBLS - Black Sea > BLSA5.xx Pontic circalittoral biogenic detritic bottoms with dead or alive mussel beds, shell deposits, with encrusting corallines (Phymatolithon, Lithothamnion) and attached foliose sciaphilic macroalgae

Pontic circalittoral biogenic detritic bottoms with dead or alive mussel beds, shell deposits, with encrusting corallines (Phymatolithon, Lithothamnion) and attached foliose sciaphilic macroalgae

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code BLSA5.xx
Threat status
Europe Critically Endangered
EU Critically Endangered
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

Zernov’s Phyllophora Field is a bioengineered habitat type unique to the Black Sea, consisting of extensive stands of perennial red algae (genera Phyllophora, Coccotylus) developing on circalittoral hard substrata and a highly diverse associated fauna. Zernov’s Phyllophora Field - located on the northwestern shelf of the Black Sea – comprises the world’s most abundant stand of Phyllophoraceae. They develop on mixed sediments (shelly mud to pure shell hash) covered by dead or alive crustose corallines Lithothamnion crispatum, Lithothamnion propontidis, Lithophyllum cystoseirae, occurring offshore at depths of 30-50m. The crustose corallines are the preferred substrate for attachment of a more or less dense cover of Phyllophora crispa and Coccotylus truncatus. Phyllophora crispa may form extensive canopies here, which harbour a characteristic and diverse fauna.

During the historical period 32 macroalgae species were recorded from the ZPF. The most abundant algae were Phyllophora crispa (syn. P. nervosa), Coccotylus truncatus, Polysiphonia sanguinea, Feldmania irregularis, Desmarestia viridis.

Indicators of quality:

Suitable biotic indicators of quality include:

-Abundance of Phyllophora crispa

-Abundance of Mytilus galloprovincialis

-Biomass of Phyllophora crispa.

Suitable abiotic indictors of quality include:

-Water transparency

Indicator thresholds for monitoring purposes have not been set. Biomass of Phyllophora crispa in 1978 was 4-17000 gm-2. The habitat was considered to be of good quality during this period. However, due to severe degradation in the subsequent years this can no longer be considered a realistic target.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment


In the EU28 the habitat type is assessed as Critical under criteria A1, B1b, B1c and C/D1. For criteria A1 there has been a reduction in extent >80% in the past 50 years. It was previously present over a considerably larger area in Romania. This is based on quantitative data. For criterion B1b, the EOO is
698km2. This is based on quantitative data. Gas extraction is likely to cause further declines in the next 20 years. For Criterion B1c the EOO is 698km2 and habitat exists at only location. This is considered as one location as a single threat may impact the whole location. For criterion C/D1 there has been a severe decline in quality affecting >80% in the past 50 years. This is based on knowledge of the habitats current fragmented state compared to the 1970s.
In the EU28+ the habitat type is assessed as Critical under C/D1. For Criteria C/D1 there has been a severe decline in quality affecting >80% in the past 50 years. This is reflected in reduction in Phylophorra crispa biomass. This is based on quantitative data.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Critically Endangered A1, B1b, B1c, C/D1
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Critically Endangered C/D1

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
    • Exploration and extraction of oil or gas
  • Biological resource use other than agriculture & forestry
    • Professional active fishing
  • Pollution
    • Nutrient enrichment (N, P, organic matter)
  • Natural System modifications
    • Siltation rate changes, dumping, depositing of dredged deposits

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat cannot recover through intervention. It can recover naturally providing pressures are relieved. However, this will take several decades and a sufficient source population is required.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Stable
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Stable Stable
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The habitat is currently protected by MPAs in Ukraine ("Zernov Phyllophora Field" botanical reserve). However, there is no management plan for the reserve. In EU states water quality is now being managed by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Extraction of Phylophorra crispa has been prohibited since 1996. Phylophorra crispa is listed in the Ukraine and Black Sea Red Data Books. Future management should include the designation of additional MPAs for Romanian section, development and establishment of management plan for "Zernov Phyllophora Field" botanical reserve, improvement of water quality management outside EU member states.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to marine habitats
    • Other marine-related measures
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species
  • Measures related to hunting, taking and fishing and species management
    • Regulation/Management of hunting and taking
    • Regulation/Management of fishery in marine and brackish systems
  • Measures related to special resouce use
    • Regulating/Managing exploitation of natural resources on sea

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

Seas Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Black Sea Present Unknown Decreasing Decreasing

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 698 6 Unknown EOO and AOO have been calculated on the available data.
EU28+ 59 5300 This figure is for Ukraine only. It is not possible to estimate the area in Romania due to habitat fragmentation.
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Algae Coccotylus truncatus
Algae Desmarestia viridis
Algae Lithophyllum cystoseirae
Algae Lithothamnion crispatum
Algae Phyllophora crispa
Algae Polysiphonia sanguinea
Fishes Acipenser gueldenstaedti
Fishes Ctenolabrus rupestris
Fishes Huso huso
Fishes Psetta maeotica
Fishes Raja clavata
Fishes Squalus acanthias
Invertebrates Abra alba
Invertebrates Apherusa bispinosa
Invertebrates Ascidiella aspersa
Invertebrates Calyptraea chinensis
Invertebrates Cerastoderma glaucum
Invertebrates Ciona intestinalis
Invertebrates Crangon crangon
Invertebrates Gammarus aequicauda
Invertebrates Haliclona gracilis
Invertebrates Harmothoe reticulata
Invertebrates Lepidochitona cinerea
Invertebrates Liocarcinus navigator
Invertebrates Melita palmata
Invertebrates Monophorus perversus
Invertebrates Mytilus galloprovincialis
Invertebrates Pitar rudis
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Coccotylus truncatus Algae
Desmarestia viridis Algae
Lithophyllum cystoseirae Algae
Lithothamnion crispatum Algae
Phyllophora crispa Algae
Polysiphonia sanguinea Algae
Acipenser gueldenstaedti Fishes
Ctenolabrus rupestris Goldsinny Fishes
Huso huso Beluga Fishes
Psetta maeotica Fishes
Raja clavata Maiden ray Fishes
Squalus acanthias Blue dog Fishes
Abra alba Invertebrates
Apherusa bispinosa Invertebrates
Ascidiella aspersa Invertebrates
Calyptraea chinensis Invertebrates
Cerastoderma glaucum Invertebrates
Ciona intestinalis Invertebrates
Crangon crangon Invertebrates
Gammarus aequicauda Invertebrates
Haliclona gracilis Invertebrates
Harmothoe reticulata Invertebrates
Lepidochitona cinerea Invertebrates
Liocarcinus navigator Invertebrates
Melita palmata Invertebrates
Monophorus perversus Invertebrates
Mytilus galloprovincialis Invertebrates
Pitar rudis Invertebrates

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
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