EUNIS habitat classification 2017 > R - Grasslands and lands dominated by forbs, mosses or lichens > R1 - Dry grasslands > R1S - Heavy-metal grassland in Western and Central Europe

Heavy-metal grassland in Western and Central Europe

Description (English)

Short open sward with a distinctive metallophyte component, occurring on shallow, skeletal soils over natural rock exposures with heavy metals in western and Central Europe, on mine spoil or ground contaminated by dust and waters from such sources. Typically it occurs in small patches in the landscapes, colonising slowly and sustained by the extreme environment. Sometimes it is dependent on grazing by wild herbivores that maintain early successional stages that are richer in cryptogams.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code R1S
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Armeria alpina subsp. halleri
Flowering Plants Viola calaminaria
Flowering Plants Noccaea caerulescens
Flowering Plants Minuartia verna
Fungi Cladonia furcata
Fungi Cladonia pyxidata
Mosses & Liverworts Weissia controversa
Flowering Plants Campanula rotundifolia
Flowering Plants Silene vulgaris
Flowering Plants Pimpinella saxifraga
Mosses & Liverworts Microbryum curvicollum
Flowering Plants Arabidopsis halleri
Fungi Cladonia macilenta
Flowering Plants Euphrasia stricta
Flowering Plants Rumex acetosa

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Armeria alpina subsp. halleri Flowering Plants
Viola calaminaria Flowering Plants
Noccaea caerulescens Flowering Plants
Minuartia verna Flowering Plants
Cladonia furcata Fungi
Cladonia pyxidata Fungi
Weissia controversa Mosses & Liverworts
Campanula rotundifolia Flowering Plants
Silene vulgaris Flowering Plants
Pimpinella saxifraga Flowering Plants
Microbryum curvicollum Mosses & Liverworts
Arabidopsis halleri Flowering Plants
Cladonia macilenta Fungi
Euphrasia stricta Flowering Plants
Rumex acetosa Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Armeria alpina subsp. halleri
Flowering Plants Minuartia verna
Flowering Plants Silene vulgaris
Flowering Plants Festuca ovina
Flowering Plants Campanula rotundifolia
Flowering Plants Agrostis capillaris
Flowering Plants Rumex acetosa
Fungi Cladonia pyxidata
Flowering Plants Pimpinella saxifraga
Fungi Cladonia furcata
Flowering Plants Viola calaminaria
Flowering Plants Thymus pulegioides
Flowering Plants Avenella flexuosa
Flowering Plants Plantago lanceolata
Flowering Plants Noccaea caerulescens
Mosses & Liverworts Ceratodon purpureus
Flowering Plants Potentilla erecta
Flowering Plants Polygala vulgaris
Flowering Plants Molinia caerulea
Flowering Plants Lotus corniculatus

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Armeria alpina subsp. halleri Flowering Plants
Minuartia verna Flowering Plants
Silene vulgaris Flowering Plants
Festuca ovina Flowering Plants
Campanula rotundifolia Flowering Plants
Agrostis capillaris Flowering Plants
Rumex acetosa Flowering Plants
Cladonia pyxidata Fungi
Pimpinella saxifraga Flowering Plants
Cladonia furcata Fungi
Viola calaminaria Flowering Plants
Thymus pulegioides Flowering Plants
Avenella flexuosa Flowering Plants
Plantago lanceolata Flowering Plants
Noccaea caerulescens Flowering Plants
Ceratodon purpureus Mosses & Liverworts
Potentilla erecta Flowering Plants
Polygala vulgaris Flowering Plants
Molinia caerulea Flowering Plants
Lotus corniculatus Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Festuca ovina
Flowering Plants Armeria alpina subsp. halleri
Flowering Plants Minuartia verna

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Festuca ovina Flowering Plants
Armeria alpina subsp. halleri Flowering Plants
Minuartia verna Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) E1.B Heavy-metal grassland same
European Red List of Habitats E1.B Heavy-metal grassland in Western and Central Europe same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E1.B Heavy-metal grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E1.B Heavy-metal grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E1.B Heavy-metal grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E1.B Heavy-metal grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E1.B Lowland heavy-metal grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E1.4 Lowland heavy-metal grassland same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 34.2 Heavy metal grasslands same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 34.2 Heavy metal grasslands same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 34.2   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 34.2   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 34.2   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 34.2   same
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100