Macaronesian laurophyllous forest

Description (English)

Evergreen laurophyllous forest (laurisilva) on deep soils in the hyper-humid, frost-free fog belt mainly on the northern slopes in the mountains on some Macaronesian islands. The tree and shrub canopy is very diverse and rich in endemics, with striking differences related to climatic conditions across the different island groups, local topography and long isolation of the floras.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T23
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Laurus azorica
Flowering Plants Persea indica
Flowering Plants Ilex canariensis
Flowering Plants Semele androgyna
Flowering Plants Ocotea foetens
Ferns Dryopteris crispifolia
Ferns Asplenium hemionitis
Flowering Plants Ilex perado
Flowering Plants Urtica morifolia
Flowering Plants Jasminum odoratissimum

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Laurus azorica Flowering Plants
Persea indica Flowering Plants
Ilex canariensis Flowering Plants
Semele androgyna Flowering Plants
Ocotea foetens Flowering Plants
Dryopteris crispifolia Ferns
Asplenium hemionitis Ferns
Ilex perado Flowering Plants
Urtica morifolia Flowering Plants
Jasminum odoratissimum Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Laurus azorica
Flowering Plants Erica arborea
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Ilex canariensis
Flowering Plants Brachypodium sylvaticum
Ferns Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
Flowering Plants Viburnum tinus
Flowering Plants Rubia peregrina
Flowering Plants Persea indica
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Rubus ulmifolius
Flowering Plants Galium scabrum
Flowering Plants Ilex perado

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Laurus azorica Flowering Plants
Erica arborea Flowering Plants
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Ilex canariensis Flowering Plants
Brachypodium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Asplenium adiantum-nigrum Ferns
Viburnum tinus Flowering Plants
Rubia peregrina Flowering Plants
Persea indica Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Rubus ulmifolius Flowering Plants
Galium scabrum Flowering Plants
Ilex perado Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Laurus azorica
Flowering Plants Viburnum tinus
Flowering Plants Picconia excelsa
Flowering Plants Persea indica
Flowering Plants Erica arborea
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Ocotea foetens
Flowering Plants Ilex canariensis
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Ferns Diplazium caudatum

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Laurus azorica Flowering Plants
Viburnum tinus Flowering Plants
Picconia excelsa Flowering Plants
Persea indica Flowering Plants
Erica arborea Flowering Plants
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Ocotea foetens Flowering Plants
Ilex canariensis Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Diplazium caudatum Ferns

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland same
European Red List of Habitats G2.3 Macaronesian laurophyllous woodland same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 G2.3 Macaronesian laurel woodland same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 45.6 Macaronesian laurel forests same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 45.6 Macaronesian laurel forests same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 45.6   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 45.6   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 45.6   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 45.6   same
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