Red List habitat classification > RLB - Coastal habitats > RLB1.4c Black Sea coastal dune grassland (grey dune)

Black Sea coastal dune grassland (grey dune)

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLB1.4c
Threat status
Europe Endangered
EU Endangered
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

Stabilized or semi-stabilized dune grasslands (grey dunes) represented by perennial communities, dominated by grasses, herbs, mosses and lichens. The type is distributed along the Black Sea coast, but mostly found in its western and north-western part. This habitat includes dune complexes which differ in size and height (from 2–3 m up to 50 m above sea level). These dunes are better developed on flat shores, where there is a wider contact zone between the Black Sea influence and the adjacent vegetation, mostly forests. The vegetation of the Black Sea dunes is a complex of grasslands, small shrubs and small forests. Perennial species dominate but many annuals occur, principally on the more mobile sands, usually present on high ridges. On northern exposed, moist slopes, many mosses and lichens occur. The most fixed wet sands at the depressions in the dunes are covered by the coenoses mostly dominated by tall grasses, sedges and rushes, forming transitions to humid dune slacks (habitat B1,8b). The vegetation of the Black Sea fixed dunes shows a large diversity in species composition. Along the western coast of the Black Sea it changes gradually from south to north. The main gradient is climatic and also biogeographical. This gradient is associated with a reduction of East-Mediterranean species and an increase of Pontic steppe species. According to this gradient the Western Black Sea grey dunes are divided into two main types: northern and southern grey dunes, with the Balkan Range in Bulgaria as a conditional border between the two sub-types. The northern Black Sea grey dunes have optimal distribution in the region of the Danube Delta in Romania and around the Azov Sea in Ukraine. The southern Black Sea dune grasslands are widely distributed in the Southern Black Sea coast of Bulgaria and European Turkey. Especially the southern Black Sea dunes are rich in some Balkan and Balkan-Anatolian endemics, like Lepidotrichum uechtritzianum, while the northern types are less rich in both annuals and endemic species. These dune grasslands are threatened by direct destruction and degradation from the construction activities in resort areas, both in Bulgaria and Romania. There is also invasion of natural and alien shrub and three species as Paliurus spina-christi, Ailanthus altissima, Amorpha fruticosa, Robinia pseudacacia, Eleagnos angustifolia.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat type is assessed as Endangered (EN) under Criterion B1 and B2 both at the EU28 and the EU28+ levels, as the habitat has a small geographical distribution (extent of occurrence (EOO) < 20,000 km2 and area of occupancy (AOO) < 20 km2), and there is a continuing decline in spatial extent of the habitat. Due to touristic development, invading non-native plants and artificial forest plantations, the habitat is likely to experience continuing decline in quantity and/or quality within the next 20 years.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Endangered B1, B2
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Endangered B1, B2

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Grazing
    • Intensive grazing
  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest planting on open ground
    • Artificial planting on open ground (non-native trees)
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
    • Continuous urbanisation
  • Human intrusions and disturbances
    • Outdoor sports and leisure activities, recreational activities
    • Walking, horseriding and non-motorised vehicles
    • Motorised vehicles
    • Off-road motorized driving
    • Other human intrusions and disturbances
    • Trampling, overuse
  • Pollution
    • Garbage and solid waste
  • Invasive, other problematic species and genes
    • Invasive non-native species

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat has some capacity to recover naturally but it is dependent on some geological processes which are intrinsically very slow. It could be restored in some areas where artificial forest plantations have been planted or where there is an invasion of non typical plant species.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The most important conservation tool is a strict protection of preserved dune systems. Further projects for the restoration of some habitat areas should be carried out, including the removal of non-typical forest plantations, invasive species, waste, etc. Possible positive measure is also the construction of some fences and roads for protection of the dune structure. It will prevent the trampling and off-road driving which destroies significantly the dune systems.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring coastal areas
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species
  • Measures related to urban areas, industry, energy and transport
    • Urban and industrial waste management

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bulgaria Present 4.1 Decreasing Decreasing
Romania Present 5 Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 18850 14 9.1
EU28+ 14 9.1
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Amphibians Pelobates syriacus
Birds Charadrius alexandrinus
Conifers Ephedra distachya
Flowering Plants Ailanthus altissima
Flowering Plants Alyssum borzaeanum
Flowering Plants Alyssum hirsutum
Flowering Plants Amorpha fruticosa
Flowering Plants Artemisia campestris
Flowering Plants Astragalus onobrychis
Flowering Plants Astragalus varius
Flowering Plants Astrodaucus littoralis
Flowering Plants Carex ligerica
Flowering Plants Centaurea arenaria
Flowering Plants Cionura erecta
Flowering Plants Convolvulus persicus
Flowering Plants Corispermum nitidum
Flowering Plants Cynanchum acutum
Flowering Plants Dianthus polymorphus
Flowering Plants Erysimum diffusum
Flowering Plants Festuca beckeri
Flowering Plants Festuca vaginata
Flowering Plants Gypsophila trichotoma
Flowering Plants Helichrysum arenarium
Flowering Plants Jasione heldreichii
Flowering Plants Jurinea albicaulis
Flowering Plants Koeleria glauca
Flowering Plants Lepidotrichum uechtritzianum
Flowering Plants Linaria genistifolia
Flowering Plants Linum tauricum
Flowering Plants Marrubium peregrinum
Flowering Plants Paliurus spina-christi
Flowering Plants Robinia pseudacacia
Flowering Plants Rumex tenuifolius
Flowering Plants Scabiosa argentea
Flowering Plants Secale sylvestre
Flowering Plants Seseli tortuosum
Flowering Plants Silene euxina
Flowering Plants Silene thymifolia
Flowering Plants Stipa borysthenica
Flowering Plants Syrenia montana
Flowering Plants Teucrium polium
Flowering Plants Verbascum purpureum
Invertebrates Byrsinus fossor
Invertebrates Stibaropus henkei
Mosses & Liverworts Tortula ruralis
Reptiles Eremias arguta
Reptiles Podarcis taurica
Reptiles Testudo graeca
Reptiles Vipera ursinii
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Pelobates syriacus Syrian spadefoot Amphibians
Charadrius alexandrinus Kentish Plover Birds
Ephedra distachya Conifers
Ailanthus altissima Flowering Plants
Alyssum borzaeanum Flowering Plants
Alyssum hirsutum Flowering Plants
Amorpha fruticosa Flowering Plants
Artemisia campestris Flowering Plants
Astragalus onobrychis Flowering Plants
Astragalus varius Flowering Plants
Astrodaucus littoralis Flowering Plants
Carex ligerica Flowering Plants
Centaurea arenaria Flowering Plants
Cionura erecta Flowering Plants
Convolvulus persicus Flowering Plants
Corispermum nitidum Flowering Plants
Cynanchum acutum Flowering Plants
Dianthus polymorphus Flowering Plants
Erysimum diffusum Flowering Plants
Festuca beckeri Flowering Plants
Festuca vaginata Flowering Plants
Gypsophila trichotoma Flowering Plants
Helichrysum arenarium Flowering Plants
Jasione heldreichii Flowering Plants
Jurinea albicaulis Flowering Plants
Koeleria glauca Flowering Plants
Lepidotrichum uechtritzianum Flowering Plants
Linaria genistifolia Flowering Plants
Linum tauricum Flowering Plants
Marrubium peregrinum Flowering Plants
Paliurus spina-christi Flowering Plants
Robinia pseudacacia Flowering Plants
Rumex tenuifolius Flowering Plants
Scabiosa argentea Flowering Plants
Secale sylvestre Flowering Plants
Seseli tortuosum Flowering Plants
Silene euxina Flowering Plants
Silene thymifolia Flowering Plants
Stipa borysthenica Flowering Plants
Syrenia montana Flowering Plants
Teucrium polium Flowering Plants
Verbascum purpureum Flowering Plants
Byrsinus fossor Invertebrates
Stibaropus henkei Invertebrates
Tortula ruralis Mosses & Liverworts
Eremias arguta Racerunner Reptiles
Podarcis taurica Balkan wall lizard Reptiles
Testudo graeca Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise Reptiles
Vipera ursinii Meadow viper Reptiles

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.4 Coastal stable dune grassland (grey dunes) narrower
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