Red List habitat classification > RLE - Grasslands > RLE1.2b Continental dry steppe

Continental dry steppe

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLE1.2b
Threat status
Europe Near Threatened
EU Near Threatened
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

Open or closed arid, floristically rich or poor steppes or steppe-like grasslands of sub-continental and continental areas of Central, South-Eastern and Eastern Europe from sea level to maximum 1200-1300 m alt.They are widespread in the plains, lowlands, hills and foothills, mostly on slopes or plainly but elevated terrains. The localities have mostly southern exposure and different tilt, as a result of which the underground surface waters are absent and the humidity of the soil completely depends on the rainfall. The habitat comprises plant communities which have developed in different soil and climatic conditions. The bedrock is mostly calcareous (limestones, dolomites, marls) but it can also be silicate and even sandstones. The soils are very diverse: Phaeozems, Chernozems, Luvisols, Lithosols, Rankers and Rendzhinas, but generally dry, thick or shallow, eroded and stony. The plant species that participate in the composition of this herbaceous vegetation are adapted to long periods of drought. There are two rest periods, one of which is in summer. Their distribution in various climatic conditions reflects in their floristic composition and structure. Additional factors of the environment such as altitude, soil characteristics, including soil acidity and anthropogenic pressure also have an impact on these communities.

The plant communities are dominated by high, tuft-forming grasses and other perennial herbaceous species. Inn the west, such communities (Stipo-Poion xerophilae) extend to the lower arid slopes of valleys in Eastern and Central Alps. The typical steppes (Festucion sulcatae, Stipion lessingianae) are developed mostly on deep soils in Central and Eastern Europe. They are dominated from xerophytic grasses: Stipa spp., Festuca spp., Chrysopogon gryllus, Dichanthium ischaemum, Bromus spp. They may be of primary origin, especially in most continental regions on thick loess cover or on naturally eroded terrains with basic rocks outcrops. But in the sub-continental and foothill regions they can inhabit places of former destroyed woodland. In these parts, semi-shrubs and solitary trees have remained from the primary wood vegetation. In more humid regions, or on eastern and northern slope in primary steppes, the habitat is more like a meadow, with many tall herbs, among which Salvia spp., Phlomis spp. and Filipendula vulgaris. On eroded slopes there are various petrophytic steppes (Satureion montanae) on shallow, degraded humus-carbonate soils or sandy-clayey screes. These communities are dominated by perennial herbs and aromatic semi-shrubs like Satureja spp., Thymus spp., Genista spp., Teucrium spp., Hyssopus officinalis. In the southernmost parts of the habitat’s range and on the coastal areas of the Black Sea, besides perennial grasses and semi-shrubs, also many annuals with Mediterranean origin participate in the habitat. The species composition of steppes along the Northern Black Sea is a mixture between typical steppe grasses, semi-shrubs and southern annuals (endemic alliance Pimpinello-Thymion zigoidi). Very diverse are also steppe communities on slopes, ridges and tops of loess plateaus in the Danube plain. They range from typical primary grasslands on deep chernozems on the tops, to open and poor semi-ruderal communities (Artemisio-Kochion) on the steep loess outcrops. The last ones are relic communities from the Pleistocene and dominated by large tufts of Artemisia campestris, Chamaecytisus supinus, Kochia prostrata, Agropyron cristatum and Krascheninnikovia ceratoides. The richest steppes are found however outside th EU28+, in Ukraine, South Russia and Kazakhstan, regions of ecological and climatic optimum for steppes. Many different steppe syntaxa have described there, representing a large diversity of steppe vegetation.

Through the whole range, overgrazing of steppes has caused ruderalization and degradation of the habitat, which transforms into pastures dominated by low grasses like Cynodon dactylon and Lolium perenne, with many spiny, poisonous or non-patable species for cattle. The semi-ruderal grasslands dominated by Dichanthium ischaemum are also secondary, because due the overgrazing they may replace more natural communities dominated by Chrysopogon gryllus, Stipa spp., etc. Continental steppes are very important habitat for many plant and animal species including relics and endemics. They are also very valuable resource for cattle. The most fertile soils, Chernozems, are formed by the interaction of the steppe vegetation and loess. Because it, the most steppe areas are ploughed and replaced from agricultures.

Indicators of good quality:

In good conditions these grasslands have rich species composition and dominance of steppe grasses.Mainthreat is ploughing, urbanization, industrial, agricultural and communication infrastructure, overgrazing that leads to xerophytisation, ruderalization and changes in their structure and ecological characteristics. General aridisation of the climate, fertilization of the neighbouring agricultural land, stone pits, digging activities, deposition of industrial and household waste, invasion of alien species, developing of tree and shrub vegetation are also serious threats. Complete abandoning of the grazing in foothill areas led to shrub and tree invasion as a process of restoration of former woodland.A patchy pattern of grassland and shrubs on a landscape scale is, on the other hand, of importance for many typical insects, birdsand reptilians.In such cases, especially for secondary steppes in foothill and low mountain areas, more intensive management may be needed for maintenance. The following characteristics may be considered as indicators of good quality, but these indicators differ in different regions depending by origin, geographical position and level of human disturbance:

  • High species richness
  • Presence of rare and/or threatened species mostly with relic steppe origin
  • Low cover and balance of encroaching shrubs and trees
  • Absence of invasive species
  • Sustainability of traditional human activities: mowing, grazing, gathering of medicinal plants, fungi, etc.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat type is assessed as Near Threatened (NT) under criterion A1 because of a large reduction in quantity (on average -26%) in both the EU28 and EU28+ over the last 50 years. The maximum trend calculated is however higher (-31%) and meets the threshold for Vulnerable (VU). Further uncertainty about the assessment exists, because of uncertain area data from Romania, the country that covers the largest area of continental steppes in the EU28+ region. All other criteria for which data were available resulted in a Least Concern category.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Near Threatened A1
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Near Threatened A1

Confidence in the assessment

low
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Modification of cultivation practices
    • Agricultural intensification
    • Grassland removal for arable land
    • Grazing
    • Intensive grazing
    • Abandonment of pastoral systems, lack of grazing
    • Fertilisation
  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest planting on open ground
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
  • Natural biotic and abiotic processes (without catastrophes)
    • Biocenotic evolution, succession
    • Species composition change (succession)

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat has a capacity to recover naturally but the process is slow and difficult. It could be restored in many areas on the former arable lands with a low productivity. In the past it was dependent on wild herbivores, now practically extinct in most areas. Domestic animals could play an analogical role, but their grazing has to be regulated so that it will not cause any overgrazing and loss of biodiversity.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The most important is a legal protection of the steppic grassland and stopping of their transformation into arable lands. Restoration of some steppe areas and their management (like extensive grazing) are also important conservation activities.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to agriculture and open habitats
    • Maintaining grasslands and other open habitats
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Austria Present 7.6 Decreasing Decreasing
Bulgaria Present 988 Decreasing Decreasing
Czech Republic Present 22 Decreasing Decreasing
France mainland Present 100 Decreasing Decreasing
Germany Present 130 Decreasing Decreasing
Hungary Present 407 Decreasing Decreasing
Italy mainland Present 25 Decreasing Decreasing
Poland Present 2 Decreasing Decreasing
Romania Present 1700 Decreasing Decreasing
Slovakia Present 15 Decreasing Decreasing
Croatia Present 1.3 Decreasing Decreasing
Slovenia Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 20 Decreasing Decreasing
Montenegro Present unknown - Unknown
Serbia Present - -
Switzerland Present 60 Decreasing Stable
Albania Uncertain - -
Kaliningrad Uncertain - -
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Uncertain - -

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 1683200 1596 3400
EU28+ 1636 3500
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Birds Alauda arvensis
Birds Anthus campestris
Birds Asio flammeus
Birds Burhinus oedicnemus
Birds Calandrella brachydactyla
Birds Circus cyaneus
Birds Emberiza calandra
Birds Lanius collurio
Birds Melanocorypha calandra
Birds Otis tarda
Birds Phoenicurus ochruros
Birds Sturnus roseus
Birds Tetrax tetrax
Conifers Ephedra distachya
Flowering Plants Achillea clypeolata
Flowering Plants Adonis flammea
Flowering Plants Aegilops cylindrica
Flowering Plants Agrimonia eupatoria
Flowering Plants Agropyron cristatum
Flowering Plants Agropyron pectinatum
Flowering Plants Ajuga genevensis
Flowering Plants Allium flavum
Flowering Plants Althaea hirsuta
Flowering Plants Alyssum alyssoides
Flowering Plants Anacamptis pyramidalis
Flowering Plants Anthericum ramosum
Flowering Plants Arabis recta
Flowering Plants Artemisia alba
Flowering Plants Artemisia campestris
Flowering Plants Asperula cynanchica
Flowering Plants Asphodeline lutea
Flowering Plants Aster oleifolius
Flowering Plants Astragalus austriacus
Flowering Plants Bellevalia ciliata
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum
Flowering Plants Brassica elongata
Flowering Plants Bromus erectus
Flowering Plants Bupleurum falcatum
Flowering Plants Campanula macrostachya
Flowering Plants Carex humilis
Flowering Plants Chamaecytisus austriacus
Flowering Plants Chamaecytisus supinus
Flowering Plants Chondrilla juncea
Flowering Plants Chrysopogon gryllus
Flowering Plants Cichorium intybus
Flowering Plants Cleistogenes serotina
Flowering Plants Colchicum turcicum
Flowering Plants Convolvulus cantabrica
Flowering Plants Coronilla scorpioides
Flowering Plants Crambe tataria
Flowering Plants Crocus reticulatus
Flowering Plants Crupina vulgaris
Flowering Plants Cynodon dactylon
Flowering Plants Danthonia alpina
Flowering Plants Dichanthium ischaemum
Flowering Plants Dorycnium herbaceum
Flowering Plants Dracocephalum austriacum
Flowering Plants Echinops ritro
Flowering Plants Elymus elongatus
Flowering Plants Eryngium campestre
Flowering Plants Erysimum diffusum
Flowering Plants Euphorbia cyparissias
Flowering Plants Euphrasia tatarica
Flowering Plants Falcaria vulgaris
Flowering Plants Festuca dalmatica
Flowering Plants Filipendula vulgaris
Flowering Plants Fragaria viridis
Flowering Plants Fumana procumbens
Flowering Plants Galium album
Flowering Plants Goniolimon besseranum
Flowering Plants Gypsophila glomerata
Flowering Plants Hedysarum tauricum
Flowering Plants Helianthemum canum
Flowering Plants Helianthemum salicifolium
Flowering Plants Helictotrichon compressum
Flowering Plants Herminium monorchis
Flowering Plants Hieracium bauhinii
Flowering Plants Himantoglossum caprinum
Flowering Plants Hyacinthella leucophaea
Flowering Plants Hypochoeris maculata
Flowering Plants Hyssopus officinalis
Flowering Plants Inula ensifolia
Flowering Plants Iris pumila
Flowering Plants Jurinea mollis
Flowering Plants Kochia prostrata
Flowering Plants Koeleria brevis
Flowering Plants Krascheninnikovia ceratoides
Flowering Plants Leontodon crispus
Flowering Plants Limonium latifolium
Flowering Plants Linum austriacum
Flowering Plants Lolium perenne
Flowering Plants Matthiola fruticulosa
Flowering Plants Medicago disciformis
Flowering Plants Melampyrum arvense
Flowering Plants Melica ciliata
Flowering Plants Minuartia setacea
Flowering Plants Nepeta parviflora
Flowering Plants Nonea pulla
Flowering Plants Onobrychis arenaria
Flowering Plants Ononis arvensis
Flowering Plants Onosma tornensis
Flowering Plants Ophrys apifera
Flowering Plants Orchis militaris
Flowering Plants Origanum vulgare
Flowering Plants Orlaya grandiflora
Flowering Plants Ornithogalum refractum
Flowering Plants Oxytropis pilosa
Flowering Plants Paeonia tenuifolia
Flowering Plants Paliurus spina-christi
Flowering Plants Parentucellia latifolia
Flowering Plants Paronychia cephalotes
Flowering Plants Petrorhagia prolifera
Flowering Plants Peucedanum arenarium
Flowering Plants Phleum phleoides
Flowering Plants Phlomis herba-venti subsp. pungens
Flowering Plants Pimpinella saxifraga
Flowering Plants Plantago lanceolata
Flowering Plants Poa angustifolia
Flowering Plants Polygala major
Flowering Plants Potentilla astracanica
Flowering Plants Pulsatilla montana
Flowering Plants Ranunculus illyricus
Flowering Plants Rhamnus saxatilis
Flowering Plants Rindera umbellata
Flowering Plants Ruta graveolens
Flowering Plants Salvia aethiopis
Flowering Plants Sanguisorba minor
Flowering Plants Satureja coerulea
Flowering Plants Saxifraga tridactylites
Flowering Plants Scabiosa micrantha
Flowering Plants Scandix australis
Flowering Plants Scorzonera austriaca
Flowering Plants Sedum hispanicum
Flowering Plants Seseli annuum
Flowering Plants Seseli tortuosum
Flowering Plants Sideritis montana
Flowering Plants Silene longiflora
Flowering Plants Sternbergia colchiciflora
Flowering Plants Stipa capillata
Flowering Plants Syringa vulgaris
Flowering Plants Tanacetum millefolium
Flowering Plants Taraxacum serotinum
Flowering Plants Teucrium chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Thesium linophyllon
Flowering Plants Thlaspi jankae
Flowering Plants Thymus callieri subsp. urumovii
Flowering Plants Trifolium alpestre
Flowering Plants Trigonella gladiata
Flowering Plants Valerianella pumila
Flowering Plants Verbascum banaticum
Flowering Plants Veronica austriaca
Flowering Plants Vinca herbacea
Flowering Plants Vincetoxicum hirundinaria
Flowering Plants Viola ambigua
Flowering Plants Xeranthemum annuum
Fungi Cladonia convoluta
Invertebrates Bradyporus dasypus
Invertebrates Iphiclides podalirius
Invertebrates Mantis religiosa
Invertebrates Oedipoda germanica
Invertebrates Papilio machaon
Invertebrates Tettigonia viridissima
Mammals Cricetus cricetus
Mammals Mesocricetus newtoni
Mammals Mus spicilegus
Mammals Mustela eversmanni
Mammals Sicista subtilis
Mammals Spermophilus citellus
Mammals Vormela peregusna
Mosses & Liverworts Ceratodon purpureus
Mosses & Liverworts Fissidens dubius
Mosses & Liverworts Grimmia pulvinata
Mosses & Liverworts Homalothecium lutescens
Mosses & Liverworts Hypnum cupressiforme
Mosses & Liverworts Plagiomnium affine
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichum piliferum
Mosses & Liverworts Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus
Mosses & Liverworts Rhytidium rugosum
Mosses & Liverworts Syntrichia ruralis
Mosses & Liverworts Thuidium abietinum
Reptiles Ablepharus kitaibelii
Reptiles Dolichophis caspius
Reptiles Lacerta trilineata
Reptiles Lacerta viridis
Reptiles Pseudopus apodus
Reptiles Testudo graeca
Reptiles Vipera ammodytes
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Alauda arvensis Skylark Birds
Anthus campestris Tawny Pipit Birds
Asio flammeus Short-eared Owl Birds
Burhinus oedicnemus Stone Curlew Birds
Calandrella brachydactyla Short-toed Lark Birds
Circus cyaneus Hen Harrier Birds
Emberiza calandra Birds
Lanius collurio Red-backed Shrike Birds
Melanocorypha calandra Calandra Lark Birds
Otis tarda Great Bustard Birds
Phoenicurus ochruros Black Redstart Birds
Sturnus roseus Rose-coloured Starling Birds
Tetrax tetrax Little Bustard Birds
Ephedra distachya Conifers
Achillea clypeolata Flowering Plants
Adonis flammea Flowering Plants
Aegilops cylindrica Flowering Plants
Agrimonia eupatoria Flowering Plants
Agropyron cristatum Flowering Plants
Agropyron pectinatum Flowering Plants
Ajuga genevensis Flowering Plants
Allium flavum Flowering Plants
Althaea hirsuta Flowering Plants
Alyssum alyssoides Flowering Plants
Anacamptis pyramidalis Flowering Plants
Anthericum ramosum Flowering Plants
Arabis recta Flowering Plants
Artemisia alba Flowering Plants
Artemisia campestris Flowering Plants
Asperula cynanchica Flowering Plants
Asphodeline lutea Flowering Plants
Aster oleifolius Flowering Plants
Astragalus austriacus Flowering Plants
Bellevalia ciliata Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants
Brassica elongata Flowering Plants
Bromus erectus Flowering Plants
Bupleurum falcatum Flowering Plants
Campanula macrostachya Flowering Plants
Carex humilis Flowering Plants
Chamaecytisus austriacus Flowering Plants
Chamaecytisus supinus Flowering Plants
Chondrilla juncea Flowering Plants
Chrysopogon gryllus Flowering Plants
Cichorium intybus Flowering Plants
Cleistogenes serotina Flowering Plants
Colchicum turcicum Flowering Plants
Convolvulus cantabrica Flowering Plants
Coronilla scorpioides Flowering Plants
Crambe tataria Flowering Plants
Crocus reticulatus Flowering Plants
Crupina vulgaris Flowering Plants
Cynodon dactylon Flowering Plants
Danthonia alpina Flowering Plants
Dichanthium ischaemum Flowering Plants
Dorycnium herbaceum Flowering Plants
Dracocephalum austriacum Flowering Plants
Echinops ritro Flowering Plants
Elymus elongatus Flowering Plants
Eryngium campestre Flowering Plants
Erysimum diffusum Flowering Plants
Euphorbia cyparissias Flowering Plants
Euphrasia tatarica Flowering Plants
Falcaria vulgaris Flowering Plants
Festuca dalmatica Flowering Plants
Filipendula vulgaris Flowering Plants
Fragaria viridis Flowering Plants
Fumana procumbens Flowering Plants
Galium album Flowering Plants
Goniolimon besseranum Flowering Plants
Gypsophila glomerata Flowering Plants
Hedysarum tauricum Flowering Plants
Helianthemum canum Flowering Plants
Helianthemum salicifolium Flowering Plants
Helictotrichon compressum Flowering Plants
Herminium monorchis Flowering Plants
Hieracium bauhinii Flowering Plants
Himantoglossum caprinum Flowering Plants
Hyacinthella leucophaea Flowering Plants
Hypochoeris maculata Flowering Plants
Hyssopus officinalis Flowering Plants
Inula ensifolia Flowering Plants
Iris pumila Flowering Plants
Jurinea mollis Flowering Plants
Kochia prostrata Flowering Plants
Koeleria brevis Flowering Plants
Krascheninnikovia ceratoides Flowering Plants
Leontodon crispus Flowering Plants
Limonium latifolium Flowering Plants
Linum austriacum Flowering Plants
Lolium perenne Flowering Plants
Matthiola fruticulosa Flowering Plants
Medicago disciformis Flowering Plants
Melampyrum arvense Flowering Plants
Melica ciliata Flowering Plants
Minuartia setacea Flowering Plants
Nepeta parviflora Flowering Plants
Nonea pulla Flowering Plants
Onobrychis arenaria Flowering Plants
Ononis arvensis Flowering Plants
Onosma tornensis Flowering Plants
Ophrys apifera Flowering Plants
Orchis militaris Flowering Plants
Origanum vulgare Flowering Plants
Orlaya grandiflora Flowering Plants
Ornithogalum refractum Flowering Plants
Oxytropis pilosa Flowering Plants
Paeonia tenuifolia Flowering Plants
Paliurus spina-christi Flowering Plants
Parentucellia latifolia Flowering Plants
Paronychia cephalotes Flowering Plants
Petrorhagia prolifera Flowering Plants
Peucedanum arenarium Flowering Plants
Phleum phleoides Flowering Plants
Phlomis herba-venti subsp. pungens Flowering Plants
Pimpinella saxifraga Flowering Plants
Plantago lanceolata Flowering Plants
Poa angustifolia Flowering Plants
Polygala major Flowering Plants
Potentilla astracanica Flowering Plants
Pulsatilla montana Flowering Plants
Ranunculus illyricus Flowering Plants
Rhamnus saxatilis Flowering Plants
Rindera umbellata Flowering Plants
Ruta graveolens Flowering Plants
Salvia aethiopis Flowering Plants
Sanguisorba minor Flowering Plants
Satureja coerulea Flowering Plants
Saxifraga tridactylites Flowering Plants
Scabiosa micrantha Flowering Plants
Scandix australis Flowering Plants
Scorzonera austriaca Flowering Plants
Sedum hispanicum Flowering Plants
Seseli annuum Flowering Plants
Seseli tortuosum Flowering Plants
Sideritis montana Flowering Plants
Silene longiflora Flowering Plants
Sternbergia colchiciflora Flowering Plants
Stipa capillata Flowering Plants
Syringa vulgaris Flowering Plants
Tanacetum millefolium Flowering Plants
Taraxacum serotinum Flowering Plants
Teucrium chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Thesium linophyllon Flowering Plants
Thlaspi jankae Flowering Plants
Thymus callieri subsp. urumovii Flowering Plants
Trifolium alpestre Flowering Plants
Trigonella gladiata Flowering Plants
Valerianella pumila Flowering Plants
Verbascum banaticum Flowering Plants
Veronica austriaca Flowering Plants
Vinca herbacea Flowering Plants
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Flowering Plants
Viola ambigua Flowering Plants
Xeranthemum annuum Flowering Plants
Cladonia convoluta Fungi
Bradyporus dasypus Invertebrates
Iphiclides podalirius Scarce Swallowtail Invertebrates
Mantis religiosa Invertebrates
Oedipoda germanica Invertebrates
Papilio machaon Swallowtail Invertebrates
Tettigonia viridissima Invertebrates
Cricetus cricetus Common hamster Mammals
Mesocricetus newtoni Romanian hamster Mammals
Mus spicilegus Steppe mouse Mammals
Mustela eversmanni Mammals
Sicista subtilis Southern birch mouse Mammals
Spermophilus citellus European souslik Mammals
Vormela peregusna Marbled polecat Mammals
Ceratodon purpureus Mosses & Liverworts
Fissidens dubius Mosses & Liverworts
Grimmia pulvinata Mosses & Liverworts
Homalothecium lutescens Mosses & Liverworts
Hypnum cupressiforme Mosses & Liverworts
Plagiomnium affine Mosses & Liverworts
Polytrichum piliferum Mosses & Liverworts
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Mosses & Liverworts
Rhytidium rugosum Mosses & Liverworts
Syntrichia ruralis Mosses & Liverworts
Thuidium abietinum Mosses & Liverworts
Ablepharus kitaibelii Snake-eyed skink Reptiles
Dolichophis caspius Reptiles
Lacerta trilineata Three lined lizard Reptiles
Lacerta viridis Green lizard Reptiles
Pseudopus apodus European glass lizard Reptiles
Testudo graeca Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise Reptiles
Vipera ammodytes Nose-horned viper Reptiles

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
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