Red List habitat classification > RLG - Forests > RLG2.4 Olea europaea-Ceratonia siliqua woodland

Olea europaea-Ceratonia siliqua woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLG2.4
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat includes woodland dominated by arborescent Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Ceratonia siliqua, Pistacia lentiscus, Myrtus communis or, in the Canary Islands, by Olea europaea subsp. cerasiformis and Pistacia atlantica. It is closely related to the habitat type F5.1/2 Mediterranean maquis and arborescent matorral and, in fact, only a few stands have a sufficiently tall, closed canopy to qualify as this woodland type. All formations occur in the thermo-Mediterranean zone, or the thermo-Canarian for the Olea europaea subsp. cerasiformis type. The most typical example of the Olea europaea var. sylvestris-dominated formations with Ceratonia siliqua and Pistacia lentiscus are found in the northern Tunisia (Djebel Ichkeul) and in southern Andalusia (Tamo communis-Oleetum sylvestris, extinct?), in Menorca (Prasio majoris-Oleetum sylvestris), Sardinia, Sicily, Calabria and Crete. Some carob-dominated facies of the previous unit in Djebel Ichkeul (Tunisia) from the most typical example of the Ceratonia siliqua-dominated formations, often with Olea europaea var. sylvestris and Pistacia lentiscus. Carob-dominated formations are also found in Mallorca (Cneoro tricocci-Ceratonietum siliquae), in eastern Sardinia, in southeastern Sicily, in Puglia, in South Greece, Crete, in northeastern Algeria and in Cyrenaica. The use of these forests as agropastoral systems in some regions results in a physiognomy similar to the dehesas.

Indicators of quality:

  • Natural composition and intact woodland canopy                                          
  • Vigorous regeneration of typical woody species
  • Structural diversity/ complexity with (semi)natural age structure or completeness of layers with a considerable number of carob- and/or olive-tree individuals at the tree layer
  • Typical flora and fauna composition of the region
  • Presence of old trees and a variety of dead wood (lying or standing) and the associated flora, fauna and fungi
  • Presence of natural disturbance such as treefall openings with natural regeneration
  • Long historical continuity (ancient woodland) with high species diversity
  • Survival of larger stands of forest without anthropogenic fragmentation and isolation (to support fauna which need large undisturbed forests)
  • Absence of ruderal, invasive and planted non-native species in all layers (flora & fauna)
  • Absence of signs of disturbances (either rare or of low intensity)
  • Low levels of soil compactness, absence of trampling and erosion and well developed Ah horizon as good indicators for the lack of overgrazing.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The Least Concern (LC) category is assigned to this habitat, because it has an extensive distribution across the Mediterranean and the Canarian biogeographical zones, the reduction in quantity over the past 50 years has been very small and the decline in quality (abiotic and biotic) is slight to moderate affecting a relatively small part of the extent of the habitat.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Cultivation
    • Grazing
    • Intensive mixed animal grazing
    • Stock feeding
  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Grazing in forests/ woodland
    • Forestry activities not referred to above
  • Transportation and service corridors
    • Roads, paths and railroads
    • Paths, tracks, cycling tracks
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
  • Natural System modifications
    • Fire and fire suppression
    • Burning down

Habitat restoration potential

Expert judgement.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Stable Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Stable No occurrence
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Taking into consideration that this habitat has been actively modified by occasionally intense human influence, which has resulted in retrogressive succession of olive-carob woodlands towards arborescent matorral, maquis or garrigues, the conservation management measures should be related to the restoration/improvement of these woodland habitats in various aspects. For example, these measures should aim at: i) a vertical stand structure, with a considerable number of carob- and/or olive-tree individuals at the tree layer and an intact woodland canopy, ii) regulations of the grazing activity so that the regeneration of typical woody species becomes vigorous, iii) strengthening the presence and abundance of a given set of typical species or functional traits (i.e. morphological, physiological and life history characteristics) which can be used as proxy indicators of biodiversity level and succession stage, iv) lack of overgrazing which would prevent the soil compactness, absence of trampling and erosion and would allow a well developed Ah horizon.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
    • Adapt forest management
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Manage landscape features

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Cyprus Present 108 Stable Stable
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 605 Stable Stable
Crete Present 605 Stable Stable
East Aegean Present 605 Stable Stable
Italy mainland Present 249 Increasing Increasing
Sardinia Present 249 Increasing Increasing
Sicily Present 249 Increasing Increasing
Portugal mainland Present 15 - -
Portugal Azores Present 15 - -
Canary Islands Present 463 Increasing Increasing
Malta Present 24 Stable Stable
Madeira Present 15 - -
France mainland Present 34 Increasing Stable
Corsica Present 34 Increasing Stable
Spain mainland Present 463 Increasing Increasing
Balearic Islands Present 463 Increasing Increasing
Croatia Present 55 Stable Stable
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Present Unknown Unknown Unknown

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 4024250 1287 1066
EU28+ 1289 1066
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Juniperus oxycedrus
Flowering Plants Arbutus unedo
Flowering Plants Arisarum vulgare
Flowering Plants Asparagus acutifolius
Flowering Plants Asphodelus ramosus
Flowering Plants Bituminaria bituminosa
Flowering Plants Brachypodium retusum
Flowering Plants Bunium macuca
Flowering Plants Calicotome infesta
Flowering Plants Ceratonia siliqua
Flowering Plants Clematis flammula
Flowering Plants Dactylis glomerata
Flowering Plants Dracunculus muscivorus
Flowering Plants Euphorbia spinosa
Flowering Plants Galium rubrum
Flowering Plants Geranium purpureum
Flowering Plants Lonicera implexa
Flowering Plants Myrtus communis
Flowering Plants Olea europaea
Flowering Plants Phillyrea latifolia
Flowering Plants Piptatherum coerulescens
Flowering Plants Pistacia atlantica
Flowering Plants Pistacia lentiscus
Flowering Plants Pistacia terebinthus
Flowering Plants Prasium majus
Flowering Plants Quercus coccifera
Flowering Plants Rhamnus alaternus
Flowering Plants Rosmarinus officinalis
Flowering Plants Rubia peregrina
Flowering Plants Smilax aspera
Flowering Plants Teucrium flavum
Flowering Plants Thymus vulgaris
Flowering Plants Trifolium campestre
Flowering Plants Urginea maritima
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Juniperus oxycedrus Conifers
Arbutus unedo Flowering Plants
Arisarum vulgare Flowering Plants
Asparagus acutifolius Flowering Plants
Asphodelus ramosus Flowering Plants
Bituminaria bituminosa Flowering Plants
Brachypodium retusum Flowering Plants
Bunium macuca Flowering Plants
Calicotome infesta Flowering Plants
Ceratonia siliqua Flowering Plants
Clematis flammula Flowering Plants
Dactylis glomerata Flowering Plants
Dracunculus muscivorus Flowering Plants
Euphorbia spinosa Flowering Plants
Galium rubrum Flowering Plants
Geranium purpureum Flowering Plants
Lonicera implexa Flowering Plants
Myrtus communis Flowering Plants
Olea europaea Flowering Plants
Phillyrea latifolia Flowering Plants
Piptatherum coerulescens Flowering Plants
Pistacia atlantica Flowering Plants
Pistacia lentiscus Flowering Plants
Pistacia terebinthus Flowering Plants
Prasium majus Flowering Plants
Quercus coccifera Flowering Plants
Rhamnus alaternus Flowering Plants
Rosmarinus officinalis Flowering Plants
Rubia peregrina Flowering Plants
Smilax aspera Flowering Plants
Teucrium flavum Flowering Plants
Thymus vulgaris Flowering Plants
Trifolium campestre Flowering Plants
Urginea maritima Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G2.4 Olea europaea - Ceratonia siliqua woodland same
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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