Temperate and continental Pinus sylvestris woodland
|Red List habitat type||code RLG3.4a|
|Source||European Red List habitat factsheet|
|European Red List of habitats reports|
|European Red List of habitats (Excel table)|
These are Pinus sylvestris woodlands with patchy occurrence across the hemiboreal and northern temperate zone of Europe. This light-demanding tree has a competitive advantage on more nutrient-poor soils that are less favourable to Picea abies or broad-leaved deciduous trees, or are beyond their geographical range. The pine canopy is often rather open in southern Scandinavia, more closed to the west in Scotland and further south where the woodland occurs across north Germany, Poland, Latvia and Lithuania and into Ukraine and Russia. Unable to rejuvenate beneath denser canopies or in a thick moss and litter carpet, the pine is naturally dependent on fire or canopy clearance for regeneration, so even-aged groves are common. Common associates in the canopy are Betula pendula, B. pubescens, Populus tremula, Juniperus communis and Sorbus aucuparia. Other local Sorbus spp., Quercus robur and Frangula alnus are found more commonly further south. Beneath, there is a cover of Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Rubus saxatilis and Melampyrum pratense together with more thermophilous nemoral plants such as Hepatica nobilis, Melica nutans, Anemone nemorosa, Carex digitata and Epipactis atrorubens. Contrasts in soils also exert an influence on the associated flora, a dry grassland and meadow contingent with basiphilous species characterizing the pine woodlands of limestones with rendzinas in southern Sweden, Öland and Gotland, while more calcifuge species appearing on the podzols of the outwash plains, periglacial deposits and river terraces of the northern European plain – Luzula pilosa, Pyrola chlorantha, Carex digitata, Hylocomium splendens, Dicranum scoparium, D. polysetum and Pleurozium schreberi. On the inland sands of Poland, psammophytic pine woodlands have Peucedanum oreoselinum, Anthericum ramosum and Dianthus carthusianorum. In some subtypes extensive cover of lichens can occur with mostly Cetraria and Cladonia species.
Indicators of quality:
• No forest exploitations (if applicable, mainly azonal types with high nature value).
• Natural composition of canopy.
• Structural diversity/ complexity with (semi)natural age structure or completeness of layers.
• Typical flora and fauna composition of the region.
• Presence of old trees and a variety of dead wood (lying or standing) and the associated flora, fauna and fungi.
• Presence of natural disturbance such as treefall openings with natural regeneration.
• Long historical continuity (ancient woodland) with high species diversity.
• Survival of larger stands of forest without anthropogenic fragmentation and isolation (to support fauna which need large undisturbed forests).
• Absence of non-native species in all layers (flora and fauna).
• No signs of eutrophication or pollution.
• No signs of acidification (relevant mainly for oligotrophic or acidic types).
• No man-induced very high population levels of ungulates.
Synthesis of Red List assessment
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
Confidence in the assessment
Pressures and threats
- Sylviculture, forestry
- Forest and Plantation management & use
- Grazing in forests/ woodland
- Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
- Mining and quarrying
- Nutrient enrichment (N, P, organic matter)
Habitat restoration potential
Trends in extent
Average current trend in quantity
Trends in quality
Average current trend in quality
Conservation and management needs
List of conservation and management needs
- Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
- Adapt forest management
Geographic occurrence and trends
|EU28||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
|EU28 +||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area
|Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2)||Area of Occupancy (AOO)||Current estimated Total Area||Comment|
|EU28||3038400||1548||>8144||Current estimated Total Area cannot be provided because of missing data from some countries. The figure represents the minimum area of occurrence.|
|EU28+||1632||>11611||Current estimated Total Area cannot be provided because of missing data from some countries. The figure represents the minimum area of occurrence.|
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).
|Species scientific name||English common name||Species group|
|Agrostis coarctata||Flowering Plants|
|Anemone nemorosa||Flowering Plants|
|Anthericum ramosum||Flowering Plants|
|Arctostaphylos uva-ursi||Flowering Plants|
|Avenella flexuosa||Flowering Plants|
|Betula pendula||Flowering Plants|
|Carex digitata||Flowering Plants|
|Dianthus carthusianorum||Flowering Plants|
|Epipactis atrorubens||Flowering Plants|
|Frangula alnus||Flowering Plants|
|Hepatica nobilis||Flowering Plants|
|Luzula pilosa||Flowering Plants|
|Melampyrum pratense||Flowering Plants|
|Melica nutans||Flowering Plants|
|Peucedanum oreoselinum||Flowering Plants|
|Populus tremula||Flowering Plants|
|Pyrola chlorantha||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus robur||Flowering Plants|
|Rubus saxatilis||Flowering Plants|
|Sorbus aucuparia||Flowering Plants|
|Vaccinium myrtillus||Flowering Plants|
|Dicranum polysetum||Mosses & Liverworts|
|Dicranum scoparium||Mosses & Liverworts|
|Hylocomium splendens||Mosses & Liverworts|
|Leucobryum glaucum||Mosses & Liverworts|
|Pleurozium schreberi||Mosses & Liverworts|
|Polytrichum piliferum||Mosses & Liverworts|