Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia forests
Forests dominated by Quercus ilex or Quercus rotundifolia, often, but not necessarily, calcicolous.
Pal. 45.31 Meso-Mediterranean holm-oak forests:
Rich meso-Mediterranean formations, penetrating locally, mostly in ravines, into the thermo-Mediterranean zone. They are often degraded to arborescent matorral (Pal. 32.11), and some of the sub- types listed no longer exist in the fully developed forest state relevant to Pal. category 45; they have nevertheless been included, both to provide appropriate codes for use in Pal. 32.11, and because restoration may be possible.
Pal. 45.32 Supra-Mediterranean holm-oak forests:
Formations of the supra-Mediterranean levels, often mixed with deciduous oaks, Acer spp. or Ostrya carpinifolia.
Pal. 45.33 Aquitanian holm-oak woodland:
Isolated Quercus ilex-dominated stands occurring as a facies of dunal pine-holm oak forests.
Pal. 45.34 Quercus rotundifolia woodland:
Iberian forest communities formed by Quercus rotundifolia. Generally, even in mature state, less tall, less luxuriant and drier than the fully developed forests that can be constituted by the closely related Quercus ilex, they are, moreover, most often degraded into open woodland or even arborescent matorral. Species characteristic of the undergrowth are Arbutus unedo, Phillyrea angustifolia, Rhamnus alaternus, Pistacia terebinthus, Rubia peregrina, Jasminum fruticans, Smilax aspera, Lonicera etrusca, Lonicera implexa.
|EU Habitats Directive||Annex I habitat type (code 9340)|
|EU conservation status by biogeographical region||Alpine - Bad|
|Atlantic - Poor|
|Continental - Good|
|Mediterranean - Poor|
|Habitat type||Not priority|
|Natura 2000 sites||1612 are designated for this habitat type|
EU conservation status
Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2013-2018 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.
Species mentioned in habitat description
|Species scientific name||English common name||Species group|
|Arbutus unedo||Flowering Plants|
|Jasminum fruticans||Flowering Plants|
|Lonicera etrusca||Flowering Plants|
|Lonicera implexa||Flowering Plants|
|Ostrya carpinifolia||Flowering Plants|
|Phillyrea angustifolia||Flowering Plants|
|Pistacia terebinthus||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus ilex||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus rotundifolia||Flowering Plants|
|Rhamnus alaternus||Flowering Plants|
|Rubia peregrina||Flowering Plants|
|Smilax aspera||Flowering Plants|